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Kaká Completes Transfer To Real Madrid

first_imgBy Dialogo June 09, 2009 Brazil’s 2007 world footballer of the year Kaka completed his transfer from Serie A side AC Milan to Real Madrid both clubs announced. The 27-year-old signed a six year contract with the Spanish giants for a reported fee of 65million euros which both clubs refused to confirm. If it is 65million euros it would be the second biggest ever transfer – after that of French great Zinedine Zidane, who cost Real Madrid 75million euros in 2001. Kaka had earlier undergone in Brazil a problem-free medical attended by Real Madrid’s Dr Juan Carlos Hernandez as well as the Brazilian squad’s doctor, Jose Luiz Ronco. Kaka – who is in Brazil for their 2010 World Cup qualifier with Paraguay – is expected to appear at a press conference. Real chairman Florentino Perez has established a 200 million euro war chest for players, vowing to create a “spectacular team” capable of overtaking arch-rivals Barcelona – who won the title, Champions League and Spanish Cup in coach Pep Guardiola’s first season in charge – next season. Perez oversaw the era of the “Galacticos” when he was in charge at Real between 2000 and 2006, when world stars such as Zidane, England’s David Beckham and Brazil’s Ronaldo were attracted to the club. Kaka has been at AC Milan since arriving from Sao Paolo in 2003, scoring 70 goals in Serie A and 23 in the Champions League. He has won the 2007 Champions League with them, the 2004 league title, two European Super Cups and the world club championship in 2007. He had been the subject of a massive transfer offer from English Premier League side Manchester City in January but the deal eventually came to nothing.last_img read more

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2,100 Kilos of Lidocaine Seized and Six People Detained in Paraguay

first_imgBy Dialogo June 07, 2011 Paraguayan anti-narcotics agents seized 2,100 kilos of lidocaine, a drug used to adulterate cocaine, in the Vallemí area, in the department of Concepción, four hundred kilometers north of Asunción, the local authorities announced. The drug was found in eighty barrels on board a vessel crewed by two Bolivian citizens, three Brazilians, and one Paraguayan, who were detained and turned over to the local public prosecutor’s office. The seizure took place following an operation carried out by Paraguayan military personnel in that area, on the border with Brazil.last_img read more

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Individuals Convicted of Terrorism Prohibited from Leaving Peru

first_imgBy Dialogo January 24, 2012 The Peruvian government has enacted a law that prohibits granting judicial permission for travel abroad to individuals sentenced for terrorism offenses and on parole, according to a report in the official gazette. In the case of parolees sentenced for terrorism offenses, “it is prohibited to lift the ban on leaving the country, even as temporary permission, and said restriction expires once the sentence imposed has been completed in full,” the legal text published in the official gazette indicates. The law was signed by president Ollanta Humala, cabinet chief Óscar Valdés, and the president of Congress, Daniel Abugattás. Justice Minister Juan Jiménez Mayor stated that passing the law will prevent any judge from authorizing a trip abroad by a convicted terrorist. The bill was drafted in Congress following the controversy generated by the judicial permissions received by two convicted terrorists and parolees, Lori Berenson and Lautaro Mellado, to travel to the United States and Chile, respectively. Berenson, a former member of the Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA), an organization defeated during the last decade, returned to Lima after spending the Christmas and New Year’s holidays with her parents in New York. The American national was granted permission from a judge to be absent from Peru from December 16, 2011, to January 11, 2012, but she returned on the 5th of this month. Mellado, another MRTA member, traveled to Chile to obtain financial assistance from his family and be treated for an illness in his country. He has not yet returned.last_img read more

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Interview with Rear Admiral Chuck Michel, Director of JIATF-S

first_img This is the example of a successful inter-agencies operation… By Dialogo May 14, 2012 Four months into the launching of Operation Martillo, over 15 nations working together have persistently targeted illicit trafficking along Central America’s waters, disrupting more than 30 metric tons of drugs and detaining over 50 people. In an interview with Diálogo, during the Central American Security Conference (CANSEC 2012) in April, the director of U.S. Joint Interagency Task Force – South (JIATF-S) said that the success of Operación Martillo lies in the tightness of its partners: “If there is a weak partner, that’s where the traffickers are going to go. It’s absolutely essential for all of us to stand together.” Diálogo: How is JIATF-S involved in Operation Martillo? Rear Admiral Chuck Michel, Director, JIATF-South: Operation Martillo is really a regional effort and it’s the first time we try to employ all the expertise, and all the relationships and all the history of all the regional partners to try to work together, to try to achieve a strategic effect against transnational criminal organizations that operate in the region. JIATF-S facilitates Operation Martillo, but we really don’t own Operation Martillo. Operation Martillo is owned by various stakeholders: that includes all the militaries and law enforcement partners that participate throughout the region and beyond. We have substantial contributions from the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, France, Spain, Canada and a number of other partners. Diálogo: How are the European partners participating? Rear Adm. Michel: Our European partners are absolutely critical in providing ships, aircraft, intelligence and logistical support… everything you would need to run this operation. Our Dutch partners in particular are running a key part of Operation Martillo through the Central Caribbean to sense if the traffickers who are being pressured in Central America shift to the Central Caribbean. The French, under Vice Admiral Loic Raffaelli, out in Martinique, are also running an operation that is part of Operation Martillo through the Eastern Caribbean to try to achieve the exact same effect. The United Kingdom contributes through intelligence support and ships. Diálogo: How about the countries that have fewer resources? Rear Adm. Michel: There is a place and a role for everybody throughout the region to participate. Regional partner nations and U.S. participants have a renewed commitment to address Transnational Organized Crime (TOC). We’ve seen improvements in communication sharing between nations and law enforcement activities and we’ve had an increase in the number of interdictions and seizures involving two or more nations in one way or another. No single nation or agency operating alone is capable of defeating TOC. Regardless of how small one country’s efforts or resources may seem, taken collectively, every effort enhances the region’s capacity to counter illicit trafficking. Diálogo: Are there contingency plans for nations that may become affected if, as a consequence of the efforts put in Central America, the trafficking routes shift to the Eastern Caribbean countries? Rear Adm. Michel: One of the key parts of Operation Martillo is that it has a very robust assessment process. That processes has to involve not only the United States but also everybody throughout the Hemisphere. They all have to have their antennas up and their ears open to sense when traffickers shift their patterns. It is absolutely vital to sense those patterns as early as possible to be able to shift resources as necessary. For example, as General Fraser said, as we put pressure against the drug traffickers in Honduras, they’re not likely to become honest citizens and get a real job, they are going to move somewhere else and we need to sense that change and try to be as nimble as they are, so we can shift our resources in whatever direction we need to shift in. Traffickers are nimble but they are not omnipotent, they don’t own the planet. Whenever they shift, they still have to put infrastructure, they still have to move that product to another location, they still have to corrupt that government official or do all the prep work they need to do. They can’t shift on a dime easily. Diálogo: Is Martillo an open-ended operation, or does it have a time frame to accomplish certain goals? Rear Adm. Michel: This operation has no firm end-date; it changes when the traffickers change their behavior. We will continue to put pressure on them until they change their business patterns. How long will that take? Nobody knows. Diálogo: Which are the main achievements so far since Operation Martillo started? Rear Adm. Michel: Since January 15, 2012, partner nations and U.S. law enforcement activities have seized 32 metric tons of cocaine, a pretty substantial amount. We have seen a significant reduction in air trafficking, somewhere between 60 and 70 percent. I can say with a pretty good degree of confidence that something significant has happened in air trafficking, I can’t tell you fully why it happened but something has happened. We are going to have to monitor that as to what the traffickers are doing… Are they stockpiling? Are they moving to other modes we are not aware of? They are very versatile, very well funded adversaries. Diálogo: You have underscored that this is a multinational effort, where most of the success stories involve more than one country… Rear Adm. Michel: Since we began Operation Martillo, four out of five operations or 80 percent are multinational operations. For example, the go-fast boats typically depart from Colombia, are sensed down in Colombian waters, chased across into Panamanian waters or near Panamanian waters… so they may go outside territorial waters, be chased down by U.S. people, handed off to a Panamanian interceptor who will do the take down. Just that involves Colombia, the United States and Panama. Diálogo: General Fraser mentioned that there were talks about a six-month period to assess the results. Where do you expect to be at the end of six months? Rear Adm. Michel: Hopefully in six months we will see a measurable change in trafficking patterns. On the air side, we have already seen it. On the maritime side, I want to see clearer changes in trafficking patterns than we currently see right now. I’d love to see some measurable changes on land, for example, reduction in homicides and crime rates that are related to the cocaine flow as it moves through there… that will be a welcomed addition. And there are probably other factors that we can measure, like taking down drug trafficking networks, indictments, arrests. So as we continue rolling on with Operation Martillo this is very much a work in progress and it is a learning experience for us and all the rest of the partners and we hope to be able to hone those skills over the next six months. We want to continue to keep the pressure on the traffickers. That’s what I want to achieve in six months. last_img read more

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Peruvian Laws Expand Military’s Power While Boosting Army Salaries

first_img LIMA — Peru has completed the first major overhaul of its Armed Forces and National Police in 25 years, three months after the country’s Congress gave President Ollanta Humala new legal authority to combat drug traffickers and terrorists. Peru is among the world’s largest exporter of cocaine, and its military continues to fight a small but persistent group of Shining Path communist rebels. The last sweeping reform came in the late 1980s, when the government created the Ministry of Defense by fusing the Army, Navy and Air Force ministries, and merged three distinct police forces into the National Police of Peru (PNP). The 26 new decrees, which had to be published by the Dec. 11 deadline set by Congress, not only modify the structure of the Defense and Interior ministries, but cover ample ground, from improving procedures to controlling chemical inputs used in illicit activities — principally cocaine production and illegal mining. The new laws “establish the guidelines for the modernization and development of the Armed Forces with a vision toward the future,” said Premier Juan Jiménez at a press conference announcing the last batch of laws. One of the decrees calls for Peru to sign agreements with other countries to improve the National Defense System; another seeks to increase the military’s international standing through greater participation in United Nations peacekeeping operations. Another objective is to boost the local defense manufacturing industry. Peru’s Navy Industrial Services [Servicios Industrialies de la Marina] recently built eight Coast Guard patrol boats, and the Peruvian Air Force recently signed a $210 million deal with South Korea to purchase 20 new planes — 16 of which will be assembled in Peru. In addition, Korea Aerospace Industries will train 50 Peruvian Air Force engineers in production. Peru also hopes to gain additional experience from neighboring countries thanks to a late November agreement by the 12-member Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) to jointly support the construction of training aircraft for use by the region’s air forces. Salary boosts for soldiers, police officers The issue that’s received the most attention, however, has been new salary scales and seniority for soldiers and police officers. Two previous presidents had pledged to reform the pay system, but efforts fell short. The changes announced by the Humala administration eliminate a confusing system that included 36 components to determine salary grades and bring pensions in line with system used for public-sector employees. They also increase by five years, to 40 years or the age of 66, the time military and police officers can remain on the job. “This is an important reform that recognizes the sacrifice of the police and military to guarantee security,” Defense Minister Pedro Cateriano said at a Dec. 11 press conference. Interior Minister Wilfredo Pedraza said higher wages will make it easier for the PNP to attract 30,000 new police officers over the next three years. That’s in addition to the 8,000 students now attending the PNP’s police academies. “We believe the changes will make a career in the police attractive for new officers and will benefit officers who are already in the PNP,” said Pedraza. The previous system featured base salaries that were augmented with bonuses and benefits, which not only created a large gap between top-ranking officers and those at the bottom of the pyramid. The new laws also begin a four-year process of increasing salaries for all soldiers and police officers. The first 25 percent raise kicks in at the end of December. The top wage, earned by division generals, admirals and Air Force generals, will reach $3,900 a month in 2016, while the lowest-ranking officers will earn $1,250 a month — which is above projected mean incomes for Peru by that time. The Economy and Finance ministries say the wage hikes will require an additional $460 million in annual revenues. A decree modifying military service is meant to encourage new recruits to become career soldiers. It requires all Peruvian males to register for military service when they turn 17, even though the all-volunteer nature of the Armed Forces remains in place. Those who do join up are eligible for new government-sponsored college scholarships, spots in the military and PNP training academies, and preferential access to state housing programs. SEDENA to monitor security, defense policies The reform package also calls for the creation of two new agencies to replace existing ones. One will be the new Security and National Defense Secretariat [Secretaría de Seguridad y Defensa Nacional, or SEDENA], which will monitor security and defense policies. A similar agency was deactivated within the last 10 years. Mario Sanchez, deputy defense minister for policy, told Congress that SEDENA will act as an umbrella for all security and defense issues. All state agencies are required to have a security and defense plan; SEDENA’s role will be to centralize those plans. In addition, a new Armed Forces Purchasing Agency is to centralize all purchases and acquisitions under one roof. The idea was originally proposed early in the last decade, but was repeatedly shot down by military commanders. Brig. Gen. Andres Acosta (Ret.) said resistance to a centralized purchasing system is borne out of fear that the process will become exceedingly bureaucratic and politicized. “We need to ensure that acquisitions for the Armed Forces correspond to what is needed in the field, not what someone in an office believes is needed. There is a certain level of mistrust that needs to be addressed,” he said. Cateriano said the agency is aimed at “increasing efficiency and transparency in contracting goods and services, and strengthening strategic planning. We will guarantee that the agency fully complies with the requirements and mission of the Armed Forces.” One of the first tests could come in early 2013, when the Defense Ministry must decide on a major outlay to replace the country’s aging fleet of tanks. A late November report by the Army stated that less than 30 percent of its 249 T-55 Russian-built tanks are operational and those that do work are “technically obsolete.” While all the decrees become law upon publication, Congress has the right to review and, if it can muster the votes, repeal them. The congressional Constitution Committee has announced it will review 12 of the decrees to make sure they conform to the constitution. I think it’s very important that the armed forces of my country be modernized, the arms we have are from the time of general JUAN VELAZCO ALVARADO; of course, modernization has to happen at the administrative level as well, so we hope that politicians don’t get involved in matters exclusively technical that only concern military and civilian experts. We have had some VERY PREPARED FF.AA (Armed Forces) and we hope that they stay like that, also they should make having a master’s or doctoral degree a requisite for being promoted to military officer. Very good boys, working hard as always in order to bring the safety and peace that the population deserves, God bless you. Everyone got excited thinking that justice would be done, however on Friday the salaries were paid and none of the amounts matched the ones announced by the president. According to his resolution, personnel with more than 35 years of service would receive a superior rank, they were never recognized by the army who never considered them commanders or paid them as such, but now they receive the increase as colonels and not as commanders as they should; since they receive a reduced commander’s salary, it means they are stealing from their own brother in arms, are they doing it on purpose to make Humala look bad? Where does the missing money end up? Does Humala know of this atrocity? What kind of justice are we talking about if our Armed Forces have no values and steal shamelessly from their own personnel? …It seems that Humala betrayed his beloved Armed Forces. And what will happen to the personnel in retirement who gave their vote to Humala; OUR SALARIES ARE FROZEN, many of us with full retirement of 35 years…; what happens to our quality of life, the years we dedicated, body and soul, to Peru; no one stops to think that we could have died on any day of our service/work? what happens to those of us who worked in Intelligence, or you don’t remember the case of General EP (R) López Albújar? it’s very good, the army should keep doing the same, it’s very good; I have been in the military and believe me, it’s time to change the weaponry, we have to become more modernized if we want to be the best, these are the wishes of an ex-soldier. For the first time comes a president concerned with the internal and external security of the country, very good measures adopted by the president Ollanta Humala, but there’s still a long way to go until they are a match for the armed forces of Chile. I think it’s good that all public servants receive a salary increase since the cost of living has also gone up, especially full-time assistant teachers with 40 hours in the public universities, whose salary is only 27.5% compared to a professor who performs almost the same work, this is unfair. I am a retired technician, I used to work in highly-specialized maintenance units where large amounts of money are budgeted, that the state entrusts to the heads of these units who are in complicity with crooked officers, and providers use low-grade replacements, lubricants, accessories and supplies, and the money (that they save) goes into their pockets, not to mention fuels, that’s why they are after those gold mines. Since the government is announcing modernization and the purchase of new fighting vehicles, the people advising on these purchases should be qualified and experienced personnel, and not incompetent offices and politicians who want to pocket the subsidy and commissions provided by those foreign companies. Mr. President, as veteran SOLDIERS (I took part in the conflicts with Ecuador in 81 and 95), we know the deficiency in our war material. For PREPARED ARMED FORCES, WITH DIGNITY. You were late in eliminating those unconstitutional and dishonest decrees, badly done, Humala, Castilla will be your downfall. how is the increase of the tip divided according to the grade? it was about time, the strengthening of the military forces goes hand in hand with the economical prosperity. and now that the judgement from the Hague Court is coming up, even better. WHERE IS THE BIGGER POWER THAT POLICE AND MILITARY FORCES HAVE, WHO RECEIVED AN INCREASE OF S/. 300.00. MAKING THE CIVIL POPULATION BELIEVE THAT A MISERABLE INCREASE GIVES THEM MORE POWER IS DISTORTING REALITY. I ASSUME IT MUST BE A CAVIAR MAGAZINE . IT CAN’T BE EXPLAINED OTHERWISE. how is it possible that people elected to govern the country for 5 years, among whom ROBA CABLES, FOR GOD AND FOR MONEY ETC,ETC., violate the LAWS AND REGULATIONS OF INSTITUTIONS MORE THAN 70 years old. DON’T FORGET THAT ITS MEMBERS WORK 24 HOURS A DAY. AND THIS COMMENT IS ADDRESSED ESPECIALLY TO THE MEF who unfairly creates a SCALE OF ASSETS: outdated, unreal, far-fetched, not agreed upon, etc,etc……. I think that the increase in armed forces and soldiers in the military service is beneficial – not to say very good -, since those who will defend our country the most are soldiers and not generals, in the same time I there should be a balance in the salary of state workers, for this reason there is social discrimination and social class division, therefore there is no such thing as everyone being equal in rights and dignity. I don’t think they should receive an increase, especially to all kinds of officers, because they steal from the state, from soldiers and everyone else, they start stealing as soon as they become sub-lieutenants, be it fuel or the stipend of the recovered soldiers, etc. Furthermore, they should examine their possessions to see if what they own coincides with what they make; this is the armed forces, for police forces let’s not even go there, those are the worst aggressors, what’s more, every day they carry out their raids, do you think it’s in order to fight crime, no, they simply go out to steal, even if you have your papers in order they will still find a reason to get your money; they are opportunists, their possessions should be audited, they live like drug traffickers, luxury cars, fleet of taxis, fleet of trucks. Instead of giving them an increase, they should use that money to buy weapons, but weapons to defend ourselves from USA, because they are the aggressor, and who will fight in the war with a knife. they are no good I don’t understand, because the paper La Razón carries out a constant campaign for the increase of remuneration of the Armed Forces and the National Peruvian Police (PNP), even though they have the best remuneration in the state compared to other ministries. They have benefits that no other public servants have. Why aren’t the gentlemen from La Razón conducting an objective investigation of all the wages and benefits that they have, and compare them with those of the other workers. I suggest that Cédula Viva is revoked or annulled, that they retire at 65 years old like everyone else, that they pay the urban passages the same way as poor people do, no more gas, and most of all, eliminate the big corruption that exists in these institutions, from becoming member of them and getting promotions. There are many other things that have to change for equity, equality, and more than anything for a fair society which should be the grand objective to be achieved. I think, it is fear to do this, eliminate these perks? But I say, there should be a great consensus in the society, to do justice for the others, so that not only one sector that prospers economically. Perú belongs to everyone; We all work. We all contribute; We are all important; We are all equal; We all have the same rights; Paper La Razón, I deem shameful your campaign in favor of those who have more, leaving those in real need on the side. I wonder, are the military and the police paying you for this campaign? Be impartial and trustworthy with your work and profession. I only ask for equity. when salary increase is mentioned, we are only referring to officers, the technical personnel and sub-officers do not perceive this increase at all; what I do know, for most of the personnel with more than 25 years of service, is that this miserable salary looks even more miserable with the fifth category deduction .. why so much pain for this family of sub-officers, what is happening with this government; and as always, the only things that our officers say is that this indecent suggestion for increases has only been from the government, let’s see if they step up for their personnel and push that increase so that the big family is happy and doesn’t have to look for support elsewhere… it’s true that the officers should not receive an increase, because they receive money from everywhere, since they are in charge, businessmen ask them to protect their pharmacies, stores, etc, etc; and the sub-officer personnel works because they need to bring home more bread, because they have seen the huge difference between those who work and those who don’t, officers only RECEIVE, a fee has to be paid for a patrol to go on the streets, they know what to do, the old-fashioned commission, in the investigations they charge the criminals with money, of course it never goes anywhere but they charge them anyways and if they don’t pay a certain amount of money they don’t get out, and they go directly on vacation to LURIGANCHO; the active sub-officers and the retired who gave our lives, some comments that I read say that they should not receive an increase, let’s abandon the streets to the CRIMINALS then, or wait for something worse to happen, a superior sub-officer superior when he retires makes 1,200.00 net monthly, and from that he has to pay POWER, WATER, CABLE, INTERNET, RENT, FOOD, CLOTHES, COLLEGE, UNIVERSITY IF THEY GO, etc, you think that this is a decent wage, we have been working so hard for this in our national police of Peru, how the CHILEANS and BOLIVIANS must enjoy seeing our miserable salary while they get paid in DOLLARS, and 4 times more than us, because the policeman has to work more than normal hours, before there was no need to work and we had enough in spite of the hyper-inflation, GOD HELP US THE POLICE, HONOR IS ITS MOTTO. the civilians who give their opinions on the military and police increases should remain quiet, they do not know the reality or the type of work with 24 hours availability, one cannot work in a different place, ok. they do not pay us as guards, we go where they send us, far away from our families, in many places such as emergency zones soldiers and policemen die, what are you saying now, you who made those comments without knowledge of the facts. please do not take the drug-terrorists in the Peruvian forest for the deceased communist party sendero luminoso, one thing is what they pretend to be and other that you make the mistake and defend them. I give my full support and understanding to the military family, I agree that they all receive an increase because it is a profession of dedication and honor. how do you justify the increase, at least win a war, complete failures. I am passing through your beautiful country. In my country I was a soldier for 30 years and I carry the military honor in my veins, that’s why I congratulate the Peruvian soldiers, may this salary increase serve to perfect the combative abilities of their armed forces even further.I recommend not buying Russian weaponry (inherited from the old URSS). I was a high-level specialist and I conducted the maintenance and repair of radio-electronic means for my FFAA, because their maintenance is more difficult and also because this technique, without the habitual maintenance and due work, loses its combative capacity.Also, the parts and elements in its composition are not tropicalized, and even the necessary degree of automation for facing combat tasks nowadays is outdated, unless they use components and solutions of other places such as USA, Great Britain, France, etc.Greetings colleagues! Dear William, in order to talk about FFAA and PNP one needs knowledge, don’t just repeat what you hear in your comments, all public servants are behind a desk, they don’t risk their lives 24 hours a day and they don’t kill you like a dog in front of the indifferent authorities; you weren’t suddenly moved to any location in Peru, sometimes without the knowledge of your family, you have a union and you can report all the abuse that takes place, the people in uniform CAN NOT, this and other things make the difference in the military profession, don’t think that they are ignorant, because in spite of the low salaries, most of them make a big effort and study in universities such as UNMSM, UNI, UNAC, etc. I hope that you have graduated from one of those universities. Bye. good for my Peru Many times they ignore that I have been in the U.S. military, from Afghanistan to Iraq, during 2 years. I am Peruvian by birth and have military training from my family, and I know that even though many of the military sometimes have been denied the increase of salary, it happens because they serve their nation from the heart. So the individual who commented that the soldiers are unsuccessful in Peru, should put his tongue in his asshole, because I’ve seen what the Peruvian Navy has done with American equipment in drills or war games, because I’ve been there and I truly congratulate all armed forces, as despite their low salaries they maintain the honor to serve their homeland, unlike those picky guys that only compare them with other countries. As I learned from my family, a steel sailor on a wooden boat is worth more than a wooden sailor on a steel boat. It is very good that the necessary and appropriate conditions for our armed forces be met in order for them to comply fully with their function, which is safeguarding, safety and preservation of our national sovereignty. For this, it is indispensable that a fair salary be assigned to them, one that allows each soldier and their families to survive properly. In addition, it is very good that weapons be bought under the law of State Secret, because the press is very suspicious, gossipy and curious. Also, with this we tell Chile to be careful, that Peru is getting weapons as well, and hopefully the law of 5% of the future mining license fees passes. With this, we would have a very vital source of funding to modernize and upgrade our armed forces, as we have already been doing – especially by purchasing Russian weapons. I am pleased that the Peruvian armed forces are gaining more strength, as a Bolivian I am glad it is happening. The Bolivian armed forces should follow the same path, since both countries have a single enemy that is Chile, and be prepared for any external aggression particularly from the Chileans….don´t you think? ….soldier or not…one should have a proper wage, especially when you work with government assets and serving the State…do you still believe in wars? do you think Europeans still think of wars after the two global massacres they went through? would Japan send Japanese men to war?…..and why do we compare ourselves with Chile?…so then..PERU is one of the best countries in the world…because of its people, we PERUVIANS we don’t go out to kill…we go out to help others…aren’t we humans? To prioritize education is essential for learning to live in democracy and not think about confrontations. Bolivian, calm down, let’s live in peace. With all due respect to the Bolivian people. Peru has 3 non-identified bases in the North, Central and South rain forests2 underground on the coast, 1 that is in Arequipa and the other one is bigger than thatWe Peruvians are more vengeful, we’ll go to war for years not hours EVERYTHING IS GOOD, BUT WHEN ARE THEY ACTUALLY GOING TO FACE DRUG TRAFFICKING, WHICH AS WE ALL KNOW IS A MERCHANT CHAIN THAT GOES FROM THE PRODUCER TO THE CONSUMER. SO FAR THEY HAVE ONLY ATTACKED THE PRODUCERS PROTECTED BY THE TERRUCOS, AND SO FAR THINGS DON’T LOOK SO GOOD, AND THEY ARE ATTACKING THE MICRO MERCHANTS WHICH IS FAIRLY EASY BECAUSE EVERYONE KNOWS WHERE THEY SELL, AND FOR THIS YOU DON’T NEED TO PUT ON A BIG SHOW WITH GREEN POLICEMEN WHO RUN AND MAKE ARRESTS, THIS IS ALL FOR SHOW. I THINK THE POLICE SHOULD BE MAKING BIG ARRESTS AMONG THE GREATER MERCHANTS WHO EARN AND LAUNDER BIG AMOUNTS OF MONEY AND THE AUTHORITY SAYS OR DOES ANYTHING, AND THIS IS NOT NEW, this has always been like this, what’s missing? or what is exceeding, the ministers and generals should get to work, now they have the money, the plans, so now they should get the results without the theatrics and attack where they’re supposed to attack, not beat around the bush. war, war, guns, death, I think most of you know who speak ill of the Chileans and of getting armed for a war are miserable fools that allow yourselves to be manipulated by your corrupt and decadent governments, who only use foreign policies to stay in power by using old feuds to create hate among the ignoramus and perpetuate themselves as ruling authorities. Most likely you won’t be going to war but our young kids, brothers will, people who haven’t fulfilled themselves as humans nor will they be able to do it, because most likely they will die without knowing their children and having the chance to have a family. Think for a bit before you write so much nonsense. We are Latin Americans and must unite as brothers not allow ourselves to be used by the governments. Let’s get those who want war in a ring and let them beat each other. Bolivian friend, you’re the only one at war. We Peruvians are acting as great business partners with Chile. If you want the sea, we’ll give you an exit through Moquehua so you can trade, and that’s it. The rest is just imagination. We must continue modernizing our Defense ARMED FORCES of Peru much further.Eliminate terrorism and crime, and alsoHAVE PERU BE RESPECTED BY THE CHILEANS WHO PROVOKE US! Friends; in Chile there are no ghosts of war, provocations or ambitions of land expansion. I think the only way for full development is through the integration of all of our countries, despite all the differences we may have, but I still think it is possible. Chile respects its border treaties, it is not revisionist and doesn’t threaten any of its neighbors. It is well prepared with its Armed Forces and acts in a dissuasive manner. Sadly I see some brothers, mainly Bolivians, stuck in the past and with a lot of science-fiction in their minds, result of the historical misrepresentation and many times of the hate that has been instilled in them for generations. Read the history well and don’t be manipulated. The sub-development which you’re going through, it’s not just a product of the landlocked. There are many other factors. As you know, you’ve always had an exit to the sea through the Chilean ports; all the agreements from the 1904 Treaty have been fulfilled, warehouses, railways, etc; it is your problem if you don’t use them. You should also understand that it is impossible to divide the land in two, giving you sovereignty over the Pacific, no country in the world has done that. Additionally, this Treaty was signed 20 years after ending the war, without pressures and was ratified by both Congresses. Trying to disown it and going to International Courts would be a waste of time and a lot money for Bolivia, all for a cause without legal foundations. Don’t be fooled. I think President Evo Morales lacks a lot of education, culture and connections. This is all a political scheme to stay in power, unaware of the reality of his country and presenting in a unripened manner its neighbor as his enemy. The truth is that no one here is interested in the topic, except the Communist Party. THE PERUVIAN ARMY IS AN ARMY OF LOSERS, THEY’VE NEVER WON A WAR, HISTORY OF BETRAYALS BETWEEN OFFICERS, FEUDS, HIDDEN INTERESTS, THAT’S WHY WE LOST THE WAR AGAINST CHILE, BECAUSE THE OFFICERS LOOKED OUT FOR THEIR OWN INTERESTS AND DIDN’T CARE THAT THE SOLDIERS WERE BAIT. MANY GENERALS IN JAIL FOR BEING THIEVES. DON’T TALK ABOUT HONOR, IT HAS BEEN THIS WAY SINCE INDEPENDENCE, OBVIOUSLY THERE ARE SOME HONORABLE EXCEPTIONS AS A GOOD PERUVIAN, I DREAM WITH THE GREAT NATION THAT WE ALL WANT, RIGHTLY SO, CHILE OWES US OUR LAND, OUR SEA, AND NOT ONLY TO PERU BUT BOLIVIA AS WELL = THEN GEE, IF CHILE WANTED THAT GREAT NATION, GIVE US BACK THOSE LANDS THAT THEY STOLE FROM US BECAUSE THAT IS THE WORD. WHAT HAPPENED IF, AS A PERUVIAN, I HATED THE CHILEANS, NOOOOO, BETTER YET, MY RESPECTS. THEY ALREADY EXPLOITED OUR LANDS LIKE THE ABANDONED TOWN OF ARICA WITH ITS EMPTY STREETS, ONLY A FEW BUILDINGS BY THE CENTER, TOWARDS THE SEA, LIKE TARAPACA. IT PAINS ME TO GO TO ARICA, BEING FROM PERU AND NOT BEING ABLE TO WALK FREELY. PS: ONLY THE DAY THEY RETURN OUR LANDS, WHICH BELONG TO PERU, FOR THE PERUVIANS, WILL WE LEAVE BEHIND THIS HATRED FELT IN MY SOUL, FOR MY DECEASED ANCESTORS, FOR THE HEROES THAT DIED TO PRESERVE OUR PERU…RESPECT FOR THEM, WHAT THEY WANTED FOR US AND WHAT WE WANT FOR OUR DESCENDANTS. LONG LIVE PERU DAMMIT! LONG LIVE THE GREAT NATION!……….UNION OF SOUTH AMERICAN NATIONS (UNASUR)… IT IS SAD TO THINK IN ARMAMENTS. WE HAVE A VERY BACKWARDS MENTALITY. ALL THIS STUDYING FOR NOTHING, THINKING ABOUT WAR AT THIS POINT IN LIFE. Hold a military card After reading the previous comments, I am convinced that the backwardness on all levels in Peru and Bolivia is due to the inefficiency of their authorities, to being stuck in the past and to the ignorance of their people. The Peruvian and Bolivian brothers forget that Chile faced them both at war, under unbalanced conditions, both in number of troops and weaponry, only the commitment of the Chileans to fight for their land and move forward was higher, as it is today. Nobody stays home in Chile and blames someone else for their destiny. I think WAR is outdated. You can see the North Koreans, prepared for WAR, making threats over threats and ZERO PROGRESS and too much FAMINE within their Nation. War is fatal and Chile realized this when TWO countries joined together…to go against my Country…and you know the outcome. Chile is silent and doesn’t go around with blusters…but when it fights it is BRAVE and COURAGEOUS. No more resentments, what was won was with Machupe blood from our troops and the conviction that Chile is a PEACE lover…and if provoked…will react with DRIVE and VICTORY. Long live Chile, long live Peru, long live the Peaceful Bolivia. The Warmongers….to the historical trashcan. PEOPLE OF PERU, I THINK IT’S GOOD THAT YOU MODERNIZE YOUR FORCES TO FIGHT DRUG TRAFFICKING… YOU SPEAK OF HAVING A COMMON ENEMY WITH BOLIVIA, WHICH IS CHILE. I THINK YOU ARE THE ONLY ONES STILL THINKING ABOUT OF THE OLD WAR, CHILE DOESN’T THINK ABOUT THIS. BOLIVIA SHOULD ACCEPT THAT A NATION CANNOT DIVIDE ITS LANDS IN 2. I WISH YOU WOULD STOP THINKING OF A POSSIBLE WAR AND STOP TALKING ABOUT PROVOCATIONS FROM CHILE TO YOUR PEOPLE, IT’S THE OTHER WAY AROUND. YOU SAY YOU SHOULD BE PREPARED FOR ANY EXTERNAL AGGRESSION, PLEASE, YOU SHOULD BE THINKING IN A MORE CIVILIZED WAY NOWADAYS, AND NOT LIKE PEOPLE FROM THE STONE AGE. I WISH YOU CAME TO YOUR SENSES AND REMEMBERED THAT YOU WERE NOT THE ONLY ONES WHO HAD HUMAN CASUALTIES FROM A WAR THAT INVOLVED THOSE TERRITORIES. Evo, you are lacking education, invest money to educate your people and give them a better quality of live. Peru… what conflict are you talking about, when in Chile we look forward and the past is in the past, if you have resentments then your historians and educators better tell the truth, just as the Bolivian nation; don’t educate your generations with lies and resentments, maybe that’s why most Chileans make fun of you, resolve your internal problems and don’t waste time with Chile, because here you are nothing more than the subject of popular jokes as a result of your own actions of inflated patriotism and resentments. long live CHILE PE! It’s ok to raise the salaries of the soldiers, especially the troops, technicians, sub-officers, as well as have the state guarantee the equipment of the military forces, those who are against it are against the tranquility and development of the Nation; whoever is loosely saying that buying weaponry is obsolete is truly naive. I would like to see that wimp, what he would say in case of an imminent attack on our country, would he call the A-team on the phone? or maybe the Red Grasshopper?? because his Nation has no way to defend itself? The majority (not all) of the youth nowadays have already gone to college but have no criterion to express themselves, they just repeat what they’ve heard on TV, they speak without knowing and are easily influenced. Of course wages should be improved, and the Armed Forces of Peru well equipped to guarantee ourselves our development as a Nation. We should always CLAIM INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL SECURITY, and then continue developing our beloved Peru, strong and vigorous, so that no one even thinks of disrespecting us as a country; and let’s bury the saying that a Peruvian is the enemy of another Peruvian, a joke for our neighbors on all fronts, either we join together and aim towards a single goal or they will take us down again. Then, once we have accomplished this, let’s demand an infrastructure for the other institutions such as HEALTH, EDUCATION, DWELLING, ETC, with all due respect, citizens, let’s bust our balls for the love of our country, we lack nothing, we have everything here, everyone just needs to do well what they’re supposed to do, and DEMAND that our authorities do their job well. THAT IS NOT WRONG, IT IS OUR RIGHT AS THE CITIZENS THAT WE ARE. I READ THE FOREGOING AND CAME TO MY OWN PERSONAL CONCLUSION, I THINK WE SHOULD ALWAYS ADVANCE ECONOMICALLY BUT WITHOUT NEGLECTING OUR ARMED FORCES BECAUSE PROGRESS GOES HAND IN HAND WITH SECURITY; REGARDING CHILE, I THINK THE WOUNDS WILL NEVER HEAL, THEY TOOK OUR LAND, THEY RAPED OUR WOMEN AND DESTROYED OUR CITIES…..YOU NEVER FORGET THAT…AND IF WE WANT TO FORGET THE PAST AND BE BROTHERS, THEY SHOULD RETURN THE HUASCAR, THE BOOKS OF THE NATIONAL LIBRARY THAT THEY TOOK…THAT IS STILL A PROVOCATION FOR ANY PERUVIAN….NEVER TRUST A CHILEAN. it’s amazing, these Chileans say that they aren’t worried about Peru and they’re already making the silliest comments about this news that they supposedly don’t care about. In the first place, Chileans, stop telling lies and tell the actual story, the real one, not the mythology they teach you. That’s where you start. You are living off the past, referring all the time to the War of Rapine that you started to take over foreign lands, after having prepared yourselves in advance. Stop lying, that road won’t lead you to peace or reconciliation. No one joined together to bring a war on you, Chile was the one who attacked and stole what didn’t belong to them. it is absurd to consider “returning lands” from past wars- then the United States should give back Texas, or Bolivia should return El Chaco, which was cowardly taken from Paraguay after the War of the Triple Alliance (Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil) – there were no men left in Paraguay and Bolivia attacked Paraguay – in the northern region of Chile there are generations of Chileans- impossible to return anything, this is just bitter and resentful stupidity, raise your heads Peru, no hate- What a pity to read the comments of the Chilean participants, they speak with such ignorance on the maritime issue and they’re unaware of the history, their teachers are impostors ….Bolivia had its coasts and will have them because wars do not grant impunity nor legitimacy When I read so many silly things I don’t know whether to laugh or worry about the existence of people who lack brain cells. To start, the war between Peru and Chile is over and the only benefited party was England because they invested in the Chilean Armed Forces, and that was real. We can’t change the past but we can change the present to serve as a foundation for the future. Peru is a country that has come out of its worse economic crisis and is developing through giant steps, and within 15 years we will be competing with the first world economies, but in order to do this we require investing more in citizen’s education, health and safety. Now if Bolivia or anyone else remembers the past that’s their problem, we have enough problems of our own to be thinking about foreign problems. given the good and bad comments, the ideal essential for Bolivia is to change how we live, and worry about: education, manufacturing, health, the ecosystem, discipline, order, the overall development to strengthen not just our economy but our way of thinking and doing things, then with personality and strength we will have access to that which was taken away from us by the British, of said theft, robbery… Peru, Chile and Bolivia should return to their initial geopolitics and become a single region, the most important thing is development, not who is or has been winning over the other. The most important thing is development and creating more jobs, finding a way to integrate in order to have a sustainable economical development. The challenge is how to integrate ourselves. The past is history and many stories are not true. My regards. it’s a good idea to improve the Peruvian Armed Forces, let’s buy guns and say it’s for drug trafficking, and afterwards let’s go after Chile and get back what belonged to us…where there was fire, ashes remain, so Peru, let’s prepare ourselves and not neglect our Armed Forces, long live Peru, dammit……… I am Peruvian and a good Peruvian in my heart and soul. I would do anything for my homeland just as our predecessors did, and I would kill any proud Chilean to get my land back, you would do anything for your homeland. worry about your people instead of buying the nonesense of leaving your country in order to eat 200 thousand in Chile 300 thousand in Argentina, why go on neophyteslong live Argentina War? it was an invasion without a declaration of war and you think you’re brave? I’ll give you all something to think about (in the event that armed thieves come in to invade private property and kill and steal and keep the property, is this brave?). I passed many times through what used to Bolivian territory and is now North Chile. I saw it all, thieves breaking into properties, killing their owners, start thinking instead of judging them according to Chilean logic, is either by reason or brutality, and thieves always use that logic when mugging, you either reasonably hand in your wallet or they take it using violence and if you resist they’ll kill you. There should be a monument to honor those brave delinquents. Bolivia was never prepared for war, and if it had been or if at least they had declared war, the conflict would be justified but it wasn’t, what Chile did was an invasion and they feel brave. Chile is a “small strip” of land that only produces grapes, avocados, apricots, apples, wine and copper. I don’t understand the air full of arrogance of these occupants. The war was not by Chile, it was won by England who provided all the armament for the war, and that’s why Peru blew up two of the Frigates during the Maldives war. Peru has long surpassed Chile in “everything” (GDP, International Reserves, Industrialization, Economy, Reduced Foreign Debt, etc).It’s incredible the arrogance of these “farmers” who have zero “industry”. This is the last time I give an opinion in the midst of such ignorance. I AM VERY BOLIVIAN, SOME OF US CITIZENS MAKE OUR COMMENTS WITH NO BASE, I UNDERSTAND THAT WE SHOULD THINK ABOUT HUMANITY, THE LIVES OF HUMAN BEINGS, THE PROGRESS OF OUR NATIONS; NATURE IS WISE BECAUSE OF WHERE IT PLACED US AND GAVE US ALL A LITTLE PIECE OF LAND AND SEA, HOWEVER THEY ROB US OF WHAT WE ARE ENTITLED TO BY LAW OF NATURE, AND THEREFORE THEY SHOULD RETURN IT AS SOON AS POSSIBLE OTHERWISE NATURE ITSELF WILL TAKE CARE OF IT, TAKE NOTE CHILEAN BROTHERS, BE MORE HUMANITARIAN. honestly I’m ashamed to read comments about war and killings….when there are more pressing issues to solve such as education, equality and equity; I think the armed forces of Chile and Peru should always be equipped and with the update that was done by the Peruvians we should be even, instead of being proud of a bloody war that took place over 100 years ago and trying to relive resentments, let’s worry about improving our countries and not worry about what everyone else is doing. THIS GOES TO ALL..!! remember…you never know how the tables turn… remember how bad we were for the 27/f and don’t think that we got ahead on our own….we received a lot of help…a little more humility for all. Peru and Chile should have even military forces, when we armed ourselves up to our teeth we didn’t give a damn what they said…well let’s put up with it…this time without whining!….nobody is the bad guy or the good one…simply a few were born over there and others over here, respect that…bye folks People, there are more than enough elements for you to understand. Chile is the only Hispanic country except for Spain and Mexico that is part of the OECD, an elite group of countries that contains, among other countries, USA, England, Russia, Japan, Australia, France, Italy, Germany, etc.etc.etc. All these countries are grouped based on mutual, financial, social responsibility and military cooperation.In Chile, a free economy, they are considering imposing taxes on the dollars that come from investment capitals, due to the high volume of dollars that is entering the country and since the exchange type is very low.It has the highest interest rate of the world and belongs to a group of countries who have unlimited access to, among other things, next generation weapons. Specially because of its tight relationship with England and therefore the U.S. Think about how it would go. Dear Peruvian and Bolivian brothers:Letter from a Chilean brother:It pains me to see how you’re still stuck in the past. See the lies about the past, see how there are people who would feel happy to kill a Chilean, how they don’t trust Chileans, how the common enemy is Chile…I mean, are you really listening to what you’re saying? How is it possible that you carry so much hate over something that happened so long ago? If its about giving back the land, many would have to be expelled from Peru and return the old land to the original people…it is absurd. What happened here was in a time of settling, and remember that it was the Peruvians and Bolivians united against the Chileans, we arrived to Lima and gave it back. The true enemy is called poverty, that is what is preventing your children from being literate, it is preventing you from having a nice vacation, good health, etc.; this is spending money foolishly, Chile has never been better, what would Chile gain from invading Peru or Bolivia? Do you have something so precious that we can’t live without it? It is ridiculous, if this thing of yours is so precious, then you wouldn’t be so poor, financially speaking. Today there are thousands of your compatriots coming to our country to work and we don’t kick them out, they are accepted. Today the highest foreign investment comes from Chile. There are no specialized newspapers here saying that you are arming against us nor that we hate you. Peruvian and Bolivian brothers, it is time to move on, the future is waiting for us!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! CHILEANS ARE ALWAYS GOING AROUND THE OTHER WAY OR DISTORTING HISTORY, IT’S HARD FOR THEM TO ADMIT THAT THEY ARE NATION IS GROWING WITH THE HANDS COVERED IN BLOOD, DEVOURING EVERYTHING IN THEIR PATH, NOT ONLY STEALING LANDS BUT ALSO WITH FOLKLORE AND “CULTURE”, WHICH IS WHAT THEY LEAST HAVE. SOUTH AMERICA KNOWS WHO YOU ARE…YOU ARE ONLY INTERESTED IN MONEY WITHOUT CARING WHOM YOU KILL, AND IF YOU DON’T DO IT DIRECTLY YOU HELP GETTING YOUR “NEIGHBORS” KILLED, AS IS THE CASE OF THE MALDIVES WAR. YOUR LACK OF DIGNITY IS A SHAME. VIRUSES ARE NOT ONLY IN HEALTH OR INFORMATION, THEY CAN ALSO BE COUNTRIES, AS IS THE CASE OF “CHILE”. GO AHEAD THIEVES, WHO ARE YOU PLANNING TO HURT NOW? Personally I believe in peace…but sooner or later someone will want to take it away from you…my motto is “If you want to live in peace get ready for war”; I completely justify the expenses of a country incurred to make the Armed Forces more modern and efficient…it is a dissuasive power to have our sovereignty respected….let no other state interfere with our domestic issues…. I’ve read several related comments, and what a way to portray misspellings and poorly written words. Are the people from the countries involved educated? Let’s fight the lack of education, the lack of preparation in our own language prior to talking about history or about who’s right. We were all united and aware back in 1879 (over a century ago). Remember the liberating fleet of Peru, remember who received our founding father in exile. I read the texts of Peruvian and Chilean people and their writings and intent to communicate their ideas is embarrassing. The great Mr. Vargas Llosa would be furious and very sad for this. Pablo Neruda would say “sloppy people, procreated in the same womb……”.We are mistaken; happy Peruvians saying “we will be developed in the upcoming years”… thanks to the FFalabella(s), RRipley(s), HHomecenter(s), LLan(s). They may know what this business model implies in the future. Learn from Chile, specially from their shortcomings and distortions, little from their virtues. Don’t waste any more money in arms, invest in education, in culture (extremely rich in Peru). Please don’t mind the men who love evil, hate and fear. I don’t mean to refer to such rhetoric of “Peruvian brothers, Bolivian brothers”, that’s not true, my brother is he who respects and accepts me freely.Let’s respect our way of being, I’ve had very good Bolivian and Peruvian friends, they are my brothers in good faith, which unites us by the bonds of love and brotherhood. Regards to my beloved Peruvian and Bolivian Jehovah’s witnesses, they would understand my real love and affection and would never use a bullet or a rifle to take away a life that belongs only to the great God and almighty Jehovah, I would give my life for them. Regards. I agree with the salary increase for soldiers, and also with giving them a bonus when they’re in a conflict zone, since it’s only fair to those who are serving their country and risking their lives; also I think that comments from workers of other sectors that state that they also need a salary increase are out of context, at least in this space, since the peace-making and order for which our Armed Forces are fighting for at the VRAEM is already a plus in the quality of life of all Peruvians or would anyone like to fall into the chaos of the terrorism years.It should also be mentioned that equipping our Armed Forces is necessary and urgent, and fortunately it is happening. The main thing is to be aware of our domestic enemies such as the narc terrorists, the organized crime and the political agitators that have surfaced and take advantage of sensitive national issues in order to develop a political career without caring about the harm that’s been caused to the country; the other figure to neutralize is in the foreign scenario as potential threats to our nation’s sovereignty and integrity such as the geopolitical ambitions of extra-regional countries whose ambitions are well marked into the current reality and in the history of a past that many people were victims of, including ourselves. And we should also be aware of those neighboring countries that have great shortages due to the nature of their lands which do not satisfy their current survival requirements nor the future ones. The nature of our philosophy in defense should be “THE REAL DETERRENCE” OR “THE PEACE-MAKING” by means of weaponry. I am an elderly man, my great-grandfather fought in Arica to defend Peru. But neither him nor his daughter, my grandmother, held resentment towards the winners. It’s a thing of the past; you don’t forget the past but you move on. I was always convinced that a positive, close and friendly relationship with Chile was the best for both countries; and I am convinced of this now more than ever. Of what culture thieves you speak of? of what land thieves are you talking about? of what traitors are you referring to…?The problem with the populations in Peru and Bolivia, is that they should acquire knowledge and not hate as they do, they don’t realize that because of their lack of education and observation, their leaders manipulate them as stupid puppeteers to stay ruling without issues. Some would say ” we will return Chileans in plastic bags…”others “…we want Chile to us our sea back, be more humane…” There lies the game. A beautiful paraphernalia and the morons are speechless due to the heroic commentaries of their leaders, but once they arrive home, they have nothing to eat, AND MIGRATE TO CHILE SEARCHING FOR BETTER OPPORTUNITIES, you have no quality education, no worthy jobs. While the “heroes” arrive to their homes sustained by the taxes paid by the people (mansions), saying: “we have those retards controlled…”.Open your eyes and see that politics are a Roman circus (they throw you a loaf of bread to shut you up and for you to love your emperor), don’t be controlled or convinced because we already have a freedom. THE MORAL FREEDOM (J.J. Rosseau), and we have the right to think for ourselves and I don’t think we want our children to be prisoners of mutual hate between brotherly countries and god forbid, dead from a stupid and infamous war. The Chileans also betrayed us….but those are things of the past and one needs to look forward in order to fight for a better wellbeing in this beautiful life. Thank you.. 🙂 Excuse me for meddling, I am writing from Argentina: if there’s anything that’s nauseating is reading about those Chileans who boast of the weapon purchases that their governors make. Peruvians and Bolivians, don’t play along. The Chileans are arming first because that’s where the money is (as they say): it is a great business for your leaders, entrepreneurs, high-ranked military men (which are a cast), the owners of the media: the commissions paid from Europe and the U.S. to have their junk bought. That’s why half of the F-16 are being repaired at ENAER; 46% of the Leopards are idle due to the lack of spares and maintenance vices (staff inefficiency); of the used ships bought (and very torn, only painted) more than half are stuck at Talcahuano and other bases (ASMAR lacks capacity for its maintenance). Chile has nothing but decoration as military power and a big mouth to make threats, and brag and boast. The other reason to rearm is their huge inferiority complex and their permanent fear of the neighborhood. Fools! with weapons today, you can’t intimidate anyone, if not watch what happened to the North Koreans. With science, education, culture and development you earn respect, but this is too much to ask of Chileans, a nation of vassals for the multinationals, given that Chile is a huge shopping for Korean, Chinese and Japanese brands, from cars and motorcycles to apparel, because they don’t create, design or produce anything. Well yes, they do produce: tons of envy. Chile is beautiful, the only thing wrong with it are the Chileans. Bye. IT IS NO GOOD THAT MILITARY MEN GET A RAISE, OR THAT THE ARMY BUYS MORE GUNS, BECAUSE IN ORDER TO WIN A WAR, YOU NEED TO BE A CHILEAN. NEVER TRUST A CHILEAN!!!! TALKING ABOUT THIS LAND, WHICH WAS STOLEN WITH PREMEDITATION AND PREPARATION, THEY SWOOPED OVER THESE LANDS, STOLE THEM, AND NOW THEY ARE SAYING IT WAS LEGITIMATE. SINCE WHEN DOES A THIEF THAT COMES INTO YOUR HOUSE TO STEAL AFTER HAVING STUDIED YOU, COMES IN ARMED AND STEALS EVERYTHING HE WANTS AT GUNPOINT, AND AFTER THE ACT, BEING THE CRIMINAL DISCOVERED, CLAIMS AND AFFIRMS THAT WHAT HE STOLE IS HIS LEGITIMATE PROPERTY, ENTITLED BY RIGHT BECAUSE HE’S AN HONEST GOOD MAN?,!! ¿?!!! THAT PEACE WILL NOT HAPPEN, SOONER OR LATER CHILE WILL FEEL THE FURY OF THOSE ASSAULTED BY HIM, JUST AS THAT THIEF….CHILEANS ARE THE WORSE SOUTH AMERICAN TRAITORS, THEY GAVE THEIR ISLANDS TO ENGLAND IN ORDER TO STEAL ANOTHER LANDS FROM THEIR ARGENTINIAN BROTHERS , SOON THEY WILL BE ON THE GROUND AND THEIR HUMILIATION WON’T END, BOLIVIA AND PERU ARE GROWING NONSTOP AND SOON BOTH, BY THE STRENGTH OF THEIR WEALTH, SHALL BE GREAT NATIONS, AND NEITHER BOLIVIA, PERU NOR ARGENTINA WILL FORGET THE TREASON OF THOSE BASTARDS, PESTS, THIEVES, RAPISTS, LIARS, NASTY, TRAITORS, MALEFACTORS, STUPID, ARROGANT SONS OF NOTHING, WITHOUT ANY ROOTS OR CULTURE, CHILEAN MURDERERS, DEATH TO ALL CHILEANS!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!! GET READY TO BEHEAD THOSE DISGUSTING WORMS, THE WORST OF MANKIND !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! DARIO ALEJANDRO CHAVARRIA, is this for that man?…the one who allegedly knows everything regarding our Armed Forces, I think he’s an idiot…. what happened to you with the British at the Maldives? or is it that you don’t remember that they took you down for thinking you were the greatest thing in South America…and you’re all mouth and nothing else. My comment is that the usual resented Peruvian and Bolivian nationalists lost a war created by themselves. The war was against Bolivia for imposing loan shark taxes for the transportation of niter. Then, Peru made its famous secret pact with Bolivia to declare war on Chile, at the end the cowardly Bolivians fled and left Peru alone, now the silly Boris Romero is speaking of Leopard 1 tanks without spares and why doesn’t he say anything about the 200 latest generation Leopard 2 tanks, the wars are won on the battle field and not in the minds of hypocrites that don’t even know what a war is. A war that won’t do any good to anyone not even Chile, Peru, Bolivia, Argentina, the best thing is to work together to overcome the underdevelopment. Chile needs Peru as well as Bolivia, Argentina and vice versa and if Chile has armed itself is because many Peruvians governors such as Morales Bermudez and Argentinians such as Leopoldo Galtieri were minutes away from declaring war to Chile a little over 30 years ago, what seems to disturb is that Chile continues to grow at 6% annual rates, so instead of playing the war game, get to work Bolivian and Peruvian friends, today there’s over 200,000 Peruvians working in Chile that send their money to your countries of origin to support their families and that’s what you should be posting here instead of planting seeds of hate towards a country that is providing you with Education, Health and Social Security. it is about injustice and not resentment, Chileans, do not try to persuade us. what has been STOLEN will NEVER belong to the thief but always to the owner, we’re not begging for charity but for a part of what was stolen from us. Don’t you have doors in your house, and if there are and someone comes in and puts a wall and leaves you without an exit, how would you react? THE SEACOAST was our international door, or are you stupid and don’t get it. Or is stealing not included in your constitution, even God sees it as an unfair mistake and that’s why I say, ABAROA, I WILL NEVER SURRENDER, YOU COWARDS, LET YOUR GRANDMOTHER SURRENDER, DAMMIT! BOLIVIANS WILL NEVER SURRENDER, SOONER OR LATER, THE COCKROACH WON’T BE ABLE TO STAND UP AND WE WILL SEIZE IT. BOLIVARIAN HOPE, GOD DOES NOT BLESS THIEVES, NO ONE CAN ENJOY THE MISFORTUNE OF OTHERS, ONWARD PERU. Because of that treaty there’s no peace between Chile and Bolivia, and they’re still shameless enough to name the 1904 treaty the “Treaty of Peace and Friendship”…what treaty of peace and friendship, dammit!!! there was never any peace or friendship with Chile. There can only be peace when we negotiate 50% of the land and the coastline usurped illegally and unfairly by Chile. THE REALITY OF PERU IS NOT AS PORTRAYED BY THE ALIENATING MEDIA WHO HAVE BEEN THREATENED BY THE CORRUPT ALAN GARCIA AND HIS DISHONEST OFFICIALS. IN PERU, STATISTICS HAVE BEEN HANDLED SO POORLY THAT THEY DON’T KNOW WHAT TO DO WITH THE DECREASE OF THE DOLLAR VALUE, WHEN THERE IS NO REAL BACK UP, THE STOCK MARKET IS UNSTABLE AND DROPPING, TO THE POINT THAT WHEN THERE’S A SERIOUS DROP THEY OPT TO CLOSE THE STOCK MARKET FOR THE DAY. ¿WHERE ELSE DO YOU SEE THIS?ALSO, SOME PERUVIANS THINK THAT FOOD WILL LEAD US TO DEVELOPMENT, AND THIS IS FALSE, NO COUNTRY IN THE WORLD HAS DEVELOPED BASED ON FOOD. PERU IS THE COUNTRY WITH THE HIGHEST RATE OF TUBERCULOSIS IN THE WORLD. ALSO CHILD AND ADULT PROSTITUTION HAS NOTICEABLY INCREASED DUE TO THE LACK OF WORK AND ECONOMIC RESOURCES.IN PERU, THE UNDER-EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT HAVE INCREASED. YOU CAN CHECK FOR YOURSELVES WHEN YOU GET INTO A CAB AND FIND AN ENGINEER, DOCTOR, ACCOUNTANT, ECONOMIST, LAWYER OR MANAGER DRIVING, DUE TO THE LACK OF JOBS.IT IS TIME TO TELL THE TRUTH, AND IF YOU WISH, WATCH ON YOUTUBE “PERU’S FAKE ECONOMICAL BONANZA”. TELL THE TRUTH IN ORDER TO CLEANSE THIS COUNTRY OF ITS CORRUPT GOVERNORS. Excellent information!! By Dialogo December 24, 2012last_img read more

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DARPA Creates Microscale Pumps to Evacuate Tiny Vacuum Chambers

first_img The program has reached a successful conclusion, and DARPA researchers at the University of Michigan; Honeywell International, Inc; and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) demonstrated their pumps. DARPA-funded researchers recently demonstrated the world’s smallest vacuum pumps. This breakthrough technology may create new national security applications for electronics and sensors that require a vacuum: highly sensitive gas analyzers that can detect chemical or biological attacks, extremely accurate laser-cooled chip-scale atomic clocks and micro-scale vacuum tubes. By Dialogo June 14, 2013 In 2008, DARPA’s Chip-Scale Vacuum Micro Pumps (CSVMP) program set out to create a new class of ultra-high-performance vacuum micro-pumps. The program achieved an ultimate goal of a vacuum pressure of 10-6 Torr (1 Torr is 1/760 of 1 atmosphere) for a tiny 1 mm3 compartment with the smallest, most power-efficient pumps ever created. “The process of creating a vacuum in a room large enough to test a spacecraft, for example, is pretty straightforward,” said Andrei Shkel, DARPA program manager. “A sealed room, a large pump and ample power are all that is needed. That approach does not scale down to micro-scale vacuum chambers that are slightly larger than a grain of sand. We had to harness new kinds of physics to develop these pumps, requiring precision and miniaturization techniques that have never previously been attempted. The results are now available for future applications in the smallest, most sensitive electronics and sensors.” last_img read more

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Costa Rica seizes record tons of drugs

first_img SAN JOSÉ, Costa Rica – Costa Rican police confiscated 19.2 tons of cocaine from January to Dec. 15, making it one of the leading countries in drug seizures in the region, according to the Public Security Ministry. The achievement was reached through a strategy of shielding the country’s borders against the drug trade, Public Security Minister Mario Zamora said. “Costa Rica [is one of the leaders] in Central America in dismantling structures that are engaged in the sale and trafficking of drugs, preventing other consequences such as the crimes connected to these types of activities,” Public Security Vice Minister Celso Gamboa said. An investment of US$1.2 million in 2013 allowed the Public Security Ministry to improve police training through the National Police Academy and bolster the country’s Air Surveillance, Coast Guard and Border Patrol services. The money also was used to acquire vehicles and boats to combat drug trafficking, which involved collaborating with the United States and Colombia. “The Police Academy had serious infrastructure problems,” Zamora said. “We were able to establish a site for the provision of basic police instruction. Another measure involved extending the police course from six to 10 months, which has improved the quality of our human resources.” The ministry acquired 326 new police cars, ending 2013 with a fleet of 500 vehicles patrolling the streets nationwide. It also received two high-speed interceptor boats to reinforce its work in the Pacific. The Public Security Ministry built three new coast guard stations along the Atlantic Coast and strengthened its operations from the Pacific central base of Cuajiniquil, 250 kilometers north of San José. Costa Rica ranked fourth – behind the United States, Colombia and Panama – in cocaine seizures in the Americas in 2013, according to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). By Dialogo January 02, 2014 In 2012, Costa Rica seized 15.5 tons of cocaine. According to the “Costa Rica Situation Report 2013: Drug Trafficking and the Threat of Organized Crime,” published by the Judicial Investigation Department (OIJ) and the UNODC, cocaine is the most prominent drug being transported in the country, as it moves from the Andean region – which is where it is primarily produced – toward North America, particularly the United States. “Costa Rica is the victim of perverse geopolitics,” Costa Rican President Laura Chinchilla said on Dec. 19. “We can’t move from the neighborhood. We’re in the middle of one of the regions hardest hit by organized crime, but that doesn’t mean that we should resign ourselves to this. We’ve been doing a lot and the message that these criminal groups are receiving is that it isn’t easy for them in Costa Rica.” The Drug Control Police also has dealt serious blows to the production, importation and distribution of marijuana nationwide. The consumption of marijuana in Costa Rica has increased 260% since 2006, making it the most consumed drug in the country, according to the Institute for Alcoholism and Drug Dependency. The police sized 2.8 tons of marijuana in 2013 after confiscating about three tons in 2012. Chinchilla has asked the public to continue collaborating with police and report any suspicious activity in their communities by dialing 1176, which is a hotline provided by the Public Security Ministry, or through the website of the Public Force of Costa Rica. “The drug trade needs to understand that Costa Rica has closed ranks – from the president to the ordinary citizen – and we’re not willing to let these groups operate in our neighborhoods and steal the well-being and health of our children,” Chinchilla said. Zamora pointed out that in 2013, authorities seized about 70,000 crack rocks and 11,209 ecstasy pills. The drug trade also lost US$3 million and $193 million Costa Rican colones, as well as a plane that was used to transport cocaine.last_img read more

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Costa Rica: More than 1,200 kilograms of cocaine seized

first_img From land to the sea to the air, drug traffickers in Costa Rica are trying to smuggle in their contraband any way they can – but police are still finding them, seizing more than 1,200 kilograms of cocaine between September 27-29. On September 27, a police dog trained to detect illegal drugs alerted to a cocaine load hidden inside a bean shipment on a truck in Peñas Blancas. Police seized the cocaine and arrested the driver, who was trying to enter Nicaragua. And just two days later, a joint Costa Rican and U.S. patrol at sea found 411 kilograms of cocaine hidden in the coolers of a fishing boat, according to the Public Security Ministry. The patrol confiscated the drugs and arrested three suspects. That same day, a small Cessna aircraft crashed in the city of Cañas in the northwestern province of Guanacaste. Its passengers were gone by the time emergency personnel arrived, but police found another 500 kilograms of cocaine while investigating the scene. Honduras: Security forces leave narco-traffickers reeling By Dialogo October 01, 2014 In Honduras, meanwhile, members of two major drug trafficking organizations – Los Cachiros and the Sinaloa Cartel – are spending more time and energy trying to evade capture than transporting drugs north to Mexico and the United States. The Honduran Armed Forces and police have captured several operatives from both cartels in recent months, and displaced others from their strongholds throughout the country. Security officials have dramatically degraded the Sinaloa Cartel’s ability to operate in the departments of Ocotepeque, Copán, Santa Bárbara and elsewhere. They’ve made similar impacts on Los Cachiros in Colón, Olancho, and Gracias a Dios. Consequently, operatives with the two groups have fled to the departments of Intibucá, La Paz, Valle, Choluteca and El Paraíso, which are now targeted by security forces. The crackdown has also caused organized crime operatives to change their traffics to avoid traditional land-based drug trafficking routes. Now, drug traffickers transport about 80 percent of the drugs they move into Honduras by sea, and 20 percent by air. They often fly cocaine or heroin on planes from Costa Rica and Nicaragua to the department of El Paraíso. The Armed Forces has deployed troops in each of the country’s 18 departments as part of President Juan Orlando Hernández’s broad strategic plan to combat the narcotics trade. The president has also provided the military with improved equipment and technology.last_img read more

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Right Decisions at the Right Time

first_imgBy Geraldine Cook/Diálogo May 25, 2017 Favor deseo informacion detallada, gracias. A Jamaican Defence Force (JDF) Coast Guard team was busy at their base, HMJS Cagway, in Port Royal, outside of Kingston, during the last two weeks of April. Together with their U.S. Coast Guard counterparts, the team sat next to each other in a small office crowded with computers and cables to install new software that will bring the JDF Coast Guard to the forefront of technology. The commercial maintenance and logistics solutions software, called ManagerPlus, is an easy-to-use operating system that helps organizations with asset management, tracking, maintenance, inventory, budgets, purchase orders, and reports for decision-making. Implementing it is an important technological step for Jamaica’s Coast Guard. One of their missions is 24/7 readiness to defend and enforce the country’s maritime laws, mostly by enhancing their fleet vessels’ effectiveness in interdicting illicit activities. “We have very limited resources, so we must efficiently manage those resources,” said JDF Coast Guard Lieutenant Commander Aceion Prescott, executive officer and acting commanding officer. The new software will assist his personnel to be more effective in their operations through total asset visibility. “This particular software will be extremely useful to us. I am looking forward to seeing the full operability of this software… It looks very promising,” he added. CBSI-TAFT The software solution is an initiative by the Technical Assistance Field Team (TAFT), a program through the U.S. Department of State and U.S. Southern Command (SOUTHCOM) to build partner capacity and improve maritime readiness. TAFT is part of the Caribbean Basin Security Initiative (CBSI), a U.S. security strategy focused on citizen safety throughout the Caribbean. CBSI-TAFT brings technical expertise and support to assist partner nations in developing maintenance, logistics, and procurement systems to improve Caribbean maritime capabilities. Antigua & Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Dominica, the Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Saint Kitts & Nevis, Saint Vincent & the Grenadines, and Suriname are signatory members of CBSI-TAFT. They have seen positive results in their operational maritime fleets. In fact, CBSI-TAFT statistics from 2013 to 2015 show that there were 41 percent more patrols and 68 percent more vessel drug seizures. These values mean that partner nation coast guards increased their patrol successes as a result of their vessels being operationally available. Six of the 15 members of the CBSI-TAFT team worked hand-in-hand with their Jamaican counterparts to implement ManagerPlus. “We conduct class training, work with the live program, and then create our own training network that allows the country team to play with the system without affecting their own data,” said U.S. Coast Guard Senior Chief Petty Officer Kyle York, head of the CBSI-TAFT Engineer Department and lead of the program’s software installation. “Our partnership allows us to do what is best for them and for their program.” In addition to providing the software and training, TAFT provided additional hardware and network components. “The new system has a lot of potential,” said Lt. Cmdr. Prescott. “We can utilize the same system for other areas of the Coast Guard, which will be extremely useful to all of us.” System operation The JDF Coast Guard team knows the new system will help them make their workflow more efficient. “We are now able to look at the complete inventory list… The sustainability that the software provides is very important for us,” said JDF Coast Guard Lieutenant Christopher Gowey, officer in command of the Marine Workshop. “It helps us to monitor the maintenance of the fleet more efficiently.” Keeping up with fleet maintenance at all levels will help the JDF Coast Guard obtain valuable information in making decisions on major repairs and replacement of equipment to support their mission. “The program itself allows me to view what needs to be replaced to keep the boats in working conditions at all times,” said JDF Coast Guard Master Chief Petty Officer Abraham Miller, manager of the Marine Workshop. “We get our chance to actually do things from a more professional point of view, less paperwork and less hands-on supervision. This is what the program really brings to us,” he added. The software implementation initiative derived from “working with partner nations and noticing that they needed an accurate understanding of their sustainment costs,” said U.S. Coast Guard Lieutenant Commander Jason Plumley, CBSI-TAFT officer-in-charge at SOUTHCOM. The software “is a foundation to our work within CBSI, and it enhances our partner nations’ mission support capabilities,” he said. According to Lt. Cmdr. Plumley, managing information pertaining to fleet maintenance is critical for the coast guard’s maritime operations. So, the software, he added, is a commercial tool the TAFT was able to “tailor for our partner nations for their maritime needs.” Thanks to the software, he said, partner nations will be able to track maintenance and inventory while simultaneously running their operations more effectively and obtaining data to create budgets. “It’s a tool to make the right decisions at the right time regarding the engineering capabilities of the vessels,” said Lt. Cmdr. Plumley. The overall goal with this initiative, he said, is that partner nations can obtain “higher operational availability of the ‘work horses’ of the service, or their littoral interceptors.” Results The software has been received well among Eastern Caribbean nations. “They are very pleased with it,” said Senior Chief Petty Officer York. “They have been able to track things and get information much faster than in the past, and greatly reduce their work load, too.” Dominica, Saint Vincent & the Grenadines, and Barbados have already implemented it. Guyana and Saint Kitts & Nevis will do the same in the next two months. The new software will help the Caribbean nations continue to achieve positive results in their maritime operations. “We are greatly appreciative of the assistance from the United States,” said Lt. Cmdr. Prescott. “We remain committed to doing our share of the partnership to ensure that the assistance we receive is not going to be wasted.”last_img read more

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Brazilian and U.S. Marines Sign Cooperation Agreement

first_imgBy Marcos Ommati/Diálogo May 13, 2019 To create more opportunities for knowledge exchange and combined training between Brazilian and U.S. Marines is the main objective of a five-year plan representatives from both forces, Brazilian Navy (MB, in Portuguese) Major General Nélio de Almeida, commander of the Marine Corps’ (CFN, in Portuguese) Doctrinal Development and president of the force’s Veterans Association, and Major General Michael F. Fahey III, commander of U.S. Marine Corps Forces, South, signed in February 2019. Maj. Gen. Nélio welcomed Diálogo in his office at Ilha do Governador, Rio de Janeiro, to share details on the agreement and discuss other topics of interest to the navies of Brazil the United States, and countries of the region.Diálogo: Could you share more details on this agreement and the reason for the five-year limit?Maj. Gen. Nélio de Almeida: There is a series of conferences named ONIC [Operational Naval Infantry Committee] U.S. Southern Command designed a few years ago. These meetings address common matters and knowledge exchange in different areas. The last one was a sort of follow-up in which we worked with two plans. One is a biannual short-term, covering two years, and the other is a long-term five-year plan. The five-year term was established some time ago. We believe that it would be difficult to anticipate the future beyond five years of combined work with the United States. Two years is enough to reconcile the fiscal year, which happens in the middle of the year for the U.S., whereas for us, it matches the calendar year. Because we all rely on the budget, we formulate a two-year plan as a way of taking the appropriate actions internally in Brazil and in the U.S. This is the reason for the two and five-year plans. The five-year plan is more generic, it includes everything that we wish to do, whereas the two-year plan is more detailed, with the objectives for the exchanges, etc.Diálogo: What are those objectives and exercises?Maj. Gen. Nélio: The classification we adopted is from the U.S. They divide these engagements into two phases: key leader engagement and joint [among the forces] and combined [with more than one country] exercises. This basically defines how the interaction will occur. These areas incorporate practically all of our activities. For instance, planning, firing support, aviation assets and armored vehicle use… there are virtually no limits. Any activity for which we want to exchange knowledge, both theirs and ours, is discussed during these meetings, and each side takes into consideration what can be done for each of these activities. The U.S. demonstrated great interest in our engagements to guarantee law and order [GLO], because this is something they do not have. Additionally, they always show interest in riverine operations. On the other hand, our Marine Corps is more interested in aviation assets use and planning, in addition to other tactics, techniques, and procedures.Diálogo: Is there anything similar to ONIC with other countries?Maj. Gen. Nélio: No. We have exchanges organized with other countries, but they are not as well structured as the ones with the U.S. We have exercises with Argentina, Paraguay, Colombia, Peru, and on the other side of the Atlantic, with South Africa. Those are essentially the strongest countries when it comes to combined exercises with Brazil.Diálogo: For several years U.S. Marines have been participating in Formosa, an exercise conducted annually in Goiás. Are there other exercises in which marines from friendly nations regularly participate? Which ones? Do Brazilian marines reciprocate by participating in exercises abroad?Maj. Gen. Nélio: Regarding Formosa, if we gauge from knowledge exchange, we receive a lot more from the U.S. marines than the other way around. We are always very interested in special operations and health support areas, because they have combat experience and more developed doctrines in these fields than we do. On the other hand, their exchange is more technical, concerning activities that our people carry out differently, which I believe they learn from and include in their tactics, techniques, and procedures.Diálogo: Is it true that the Brazilian Marine Corps doctrine comes from the U.S. Marines?Maj. Gen. Nélio: Yes. In terms of doctrine, in the beginning, after a few engagements, we basically became a guard troop. However, after World War II, we realized the value of amphibious operations. But our training system was focused on creating courses in our Army, which in turn was feeding from the French mission’s doctrine as well. Over time we began to send individuals to study or complete exchanges in the U.S. These two aspects were combined, and today we can say that we have our own doctrine, customized to our needs, our challenges.Diálogo: What does MB do to bring the development of doctrine closer to operational forces’ practices?Maj. Gen. Nélio: The doctrine always aims at the operational. It gathers broad concepts, philosophy, thinkers like Alfred Mahan, and adapts to current situations, because it evolves with technology and needs. From this point we consider tactics, techniques, and protocols of action.Diálogo: Does the Navy’s General Staff (EMA, in Portuguese) greatly influences the development of doctrine?Maj. Gen. Nélio: Yes. EMA is responsible for the Brazilian Navy doctrine. However, more than 10 years ago, MB decided to decentralize the doctrine into Sectorial Directorate Agencies, the General Command being one of them. As such, EMA primarily handles high-level doctrine. EMA’s major doctrinal document is the Naval Military Doctrine [DMN], which establishes how the Navy conducts their activities. It states basic tasks, naval power, and types of operations, and offers some details on the direction of each operation. DMN defines three major areas: naval warfare operations and activities, which is combat with a high level of attrition; limited force operations, such as GLO and other lower intensity operations; and non-combat operations, such as humanitarian aid. These are the three major fields of work. Doctrine also governs MB’s planning as a whole. From this point on, the Sectorial Directorate Agencies, the largest ones being Naval Operations Command and General Command, are the main developers of the detailed doctrine. Each of them provides as many details as possible. In a nutshell, this is the framework of MB’s doctrinal system.Diálogo: Brazil will host UNITAS naval exercise this year, and the policies will differ from previous editions, with a greater focus on humanitarian aid and disaster response [HA/DR]. Is this correct?Maj. Gen. Nélio: Yes. This year UNITAS Amphibious will return and will be combined with UNITAS Atlantic. The marines used to conduct the exercise here, while the Navy would carry out exercises with the U.S. Navy. The fact that the U.S. Marine Corps is an independent force is an additional challenge for the exercise. This time, the exercise will be fully integrated, which is preferable for an amphibious operation.Diálogo: What about interoperability?Maj. Gen. Nélio: We have changed our position because we need three elements to develop interoperability: intelligence exchange, integration of command and control systems, and a common planning doctrine. We can achieve the same anticipated effects, either from an HA/DR activity or from any other operation. This is why we focus on HA/DR, because the current environment demands it, and requires integrated operations. We faced many challenges during the activities that followed the earthquake in Haiti, and Brazil was already there, leading, and aware of the situation. When the U.S. arrived, with different coordination, there were differences. This is an issue that everyone agrees on, and we are focusing on this area.last_img read more

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