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Two journalists sentenced to 14 years on terrorism charges

first_imgNews EthiopiaAfrica Ethiopia arbitrarily suspends New York Times reporter’s accreditation Organisation Journalist attacked, threatened in her Addis Ababa home News January 24, 2012 – Updated on January 20, 2016 Two journalists sentenced to 14 years on terrorism charges Follow the news on Ethiopia —– RSF_en May 18, 2021 Find out more Receive email alerts 24.01.12 – “Journalists are not terrorists”Reporters Without Borders has just visited Ethiopia, where two Swedish journalists, Kontinent news agency reporter Martin Schibbye and photographer Johan Persson, were sentenced to 11 years in prison on 29 December on charges of entering the country illegally and supporting terrorism.During the visit, from 9 to 12 January, the two Swedish journalists decided to request a presidential pardon instead of appealing against their conviction. “In Ethiopia, there is a long tradition of pardons and we have chosen to leave it to this tradition,” they said, announcing their decision on 10 January in Addis Ababa’s Kality prison.“Persson and Schibbye were arrested with members of the Ogaden National Liberation Front but they never supported terrorism,” Reporters Without Borders said. “They went to the Ogaden as journalists. We are now in a new phase, one of political negotiation, and we hope that the Ethiopian authorities, the National Pardon Board and everyone else involved can reach an agreement under which they are released quickly.”During the visit, Reporters Without Borders also assessed the current state of media freedom in Ethiopia and the constraints on its journalists, two of whom were convicted on terrorism charges on 19 January in Addis Ababa.A repressive legislative arsenal and dwindling room for expressionEven if recent years have been marked by tension between the government and privately-owned media and surveillance of the most outspoken journalists, Reporters Without Borders recognizes that there is space for freedom of expression in Ethiopia. As well as two state-owned dailies, the Amharic-language Addis Zemen and the English-language Ethiopian Herald, there are also privately-owned newspapers such as the Amharic-language Reporter, Addis Admas, Sendek, Mesenazeria and Fitih, along with the English-language The Reporter and The Daily Monitor. The privately-owned newspapers are routinely critical of government policies and at times provocative.But, in the course of its observations and the interviews it conducted during this visit, Reporters Without Borders confirmed that freedom of expression has been on the wane for some time. This has been seen, for example, in the fact that two Amharic-language weeklies, Addis Neger and Awramba Times, ceased to publish when their journalists fled the country, in December 2009 in the case of the first, and November 2011 in the case of the second.In the course of the past three years, Ethiopia has adopted laws targeting civil society and combating terrorism that have arguably rode roughshod over rights guaranteed by Ethiopia’s constitution. It is partly this legislative arsenal that has had the direct effect of reducing the democratic space and freedom of expression.Taboo subjects and working as a journalistSpeaking on condition of anonymity, an Ethiopian journalist who works for one of the weeklies told Reporters Without Borders: “There are red lines we cannot trespass while covering news stories. For example, the Oromo Liberation Front, which has long been a separatist movement, announced a few days ago on a website based abroad that it was abandoning its demand for autonomy. This is big news for Ethiopia but we cannot cover it in the local press because the authorities regard the OLF as a terrorist organization and referring to it might get you arrested.”The journalist added: “We cannot publish the views of certain people, either. The journalist Mesfin Negash of Addis Neger, for example, is wanted on a terrorism charge. As he is living in exile, he can still write articles and offer them to newspapers in Ethiopia. But who is going to take the risk of publishing them? You could possibly be picked up at once and face charges. The law forbids it, so it is indirect censorship.”Reporters Without Borders is concerned that when journalists with the privately-owned media dare to persist with their fierce criticisms of the state, it happens that they become the targets of criticism or smear campaigns in the state-owned or pro-government media.Widespread self-censorship and fear of arrest have also at times led journalists to flee the country. After those who fled in December 2009, at least another three left in November 2011. They were Abebe Tola, also known as “Abe Tokichaw,” a well-known columnist for the Fitih and Awramba Times weeklies, his colleague Tesfaye Degu of Netsanet and Awramba Times editor Dawit Kebede.Journalists facing a possible death sentence on terrorism chargesReporters Without Borders wrote to Prime Minister Meles Zenawi in August 2011 requesting an investigation into the condition in which two journalists were being held – Awramba Times deputy editor Woubeshet Taye, who was arrested on 19 June, and Fitih columnist Reyot Alemu, who was arrested on 21 June. The letter did not get a reply.In Addis Ababa, Reporters Without Borders asked the NGO “Justice for all, Prison Fellowship Ethiopia” to make enquiries about their situation and work with the government to assure that they are held in acceptable conditions while in detention.On 19 January, an Addis Ababa court found these two journalists, along with a number of opposition figures, guilty of participating in a terrorist organization and preparing a terrorist attack. The charges carry a possible death penalty or life imprisonment. The court is due to issue sentences on a later date.“Was there any irrefutable evidence of their involvement in terrorist activity produced in court?” Reporters Without Borders asked. “As showed by the prosecutor, both may have been in contact with opposition figures, which was risky, but the court should have considered the possibility that it could have been done in the exercise of freedom of expression. We are very disturbed by the idea that these two journalists may well receive harsh sentences just for expressing opinions. “The Ethiopian government says the court just followed the law, but this law could violate journalists’ freedom to practice their profession, a freedom guaranteed by the constitution. A journalist carries a tough duty to proving information to the public. He needs special protection in order to fulfill this duty. This law in Ethiopia no longer allows journalists to do their job in that sense.”center_img The organisation believes proof beyond a reasonable doubt, which is the highest standard of evidence required to validate a criminal conviction in trials, was not met by the prosecution.“These prison sentences are distressing and cause serious damage to Ethiopia’s image. We strongly hope that this case will be reviewed on appeal. Reyot Alemu and Woubeshet Taye are no criminals and must be released.”Reporters Without Borders carried out a fact-finding mission in Ethiopia between 9 and 12 January. RSF condemns NYT reporter’s unprecedented expulsion from Ethiopia A week after being found guilty of participating in a terrorist organization and preparing a terrorist attack, the Ethiopian journalists Reyot Alemu, columnist for the Amharic-language weekly Fitih, and Woubeshet Taye, deputy editor of Awramba Times – which has now closed own – were each sentenced yesterday to 14 years’ imprisonment. “It is difficult to understand the Ethiopian justice system’s stubborn insistence on strictly applying an anti-terrorism law that has been accused of infringing on constitutionally guaranteed freedoms, and on convicting journalists who have not been proved to have done anything more than make contact with opposition figures,” Reporters Without Borders said. See below : more information about Alemu and Taye, as well as the state of press freedom in Ethiopia. May 21, 2021 Find out more to go further News February 10, 2021 Find out more Help by sharing this information News EthiopiaAfrica last_img read more

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Young journalist freed after being held eight days at state security headquarters

first_img RSF_en CubaAmericas CubaAmericas Follow the news on Cuba Organisation Help by sharing this information Reporters Without Borders today welcomed the news that Ahmed Rodríguez Albacia of the Jóvenes sin Censura independent news agency was released on 12 December after being held for eight days at the headquarters of the Directorate for State Security (the political police) in Havana. Aged 22, Rodríguez said he was escorted back to his home in Havana by two State Security agents – Captain “Águila” and Officer “Eliécer” – who warned him he would remain under surveillance for “disseminating false news that threatened international peace.” He was arrested in a raid on his home on 4 December in which agents seized his equipment and files._____________________________________________________________06.12.06 – Havana reporter arrested by State Security, while provincial journalist gets four years for being “social danger”Reporters Without Borders called today for the immediate and unconditional release of Ahmed Rodríguez Albacia of the Jóvenes sin Censura independent news agency, who was arrested by the State Security police on 4 December in Havana. The organisation also condemned the four-year prison sentence passed on independent journalist Raymundo Perdigón Brito yesterday for being a “pre-criminal danger to society.”“Rodríguez Albacia and his family have been the victims of constant harassment by the political police since the start of the year,” Reporters Without Borders said. “This young journalist was even detained and ordered to stop his journalistic activities in September. This time the State Security has deprived him of his work material and thrown him in prison. Is any further proof needed that he been arrested simply for being a journalist?”The organisation added: “We call for his immediate release and that of Perdigón Brito, who has been given a four-year sentence for the same reason, in his case on the false and absurd grounds that he poses a danger to society.”On the morning of 4 December, around 30 members of the State Security Directorate and National Revolutionary Police conducted a heavy-handed search of the Havana apartment where Rodríguez Albacia and his mother live. The Miami-based news website Cubanet quoted a neighbour as saying the police confiscated a tape-recorder and tapes, a laptop, a fax machine and all of Rodríguez Albacia’s files. Rodríguez Albacia suffered a high blood pressure attack during the raid, and was driven to a hospital before being taken to the State Security’s Technical Investigation Department, where he is currently held.Jóvenes sin Censura is a new independent news agency that was founded in September 2005 in the eastern province of Holguín, where Rodríguez Albacia was originally from. He was previously arrested on 15 September in Havana and held for 24 hours by the political police (see 18 September release). He will be 22 on 10 December.Perdigón Brito’s four-year prison sentence was handed down by a court in the central province of Sancti Spíritus. The Cuban criminal code allows the authorities to arrest anyone as a “pre-criminal danger to society” even if they have committed no offence, simply on the grounds that they pose a potential threat. The charge is often used to detain dissidents.A dissident journalist based in Cuba told Reporters Without Borders that Perdigón Brito was arrested by the State Security on 29 November and told to cease his journalist activities or be sent to prison. Twelve days earlier, he had founded a small independent news agency, Yayabo Press, with his sister Ana Margarita Perdigón, who is taking over as its editor. “The political police knew this and did everything to ensure the news agency is disbanded as soon as possible,” the dissident source added.Around 100 demonstrators attacked Perdigón Brito’s relatives as they left the court on 5 December and his father had to be hospitalised after receiving a blow to the chest. Perdigón Brito is being held in the Sancti Spíritus provincial prison, located near the town of Guayos.The detention of Rodríguez Albacia and Perdigón Brito brings the number of journalists imprisoned in Cuba to 25. December 14, 2006 – Updated on January 20, 2016 Young journalist freed after being held eight days at state security headquarters Reporters Without Borders calls for the release of Ahmed Rodríguez Albacia (photo) of the Jóvenes sin Censura news agency and Raymundo Perdigón Brito of the Yayabo Press agency. Rodríguez was arrested by the political police in Havana on 4 December. Perdigón was sentenced on 5 December to four years in prison as a “danger to society.” October 12, 2018 Find out more Receive email alerts to go further News News Cuba and its Decree Law 370: annihilating freedom of expression on the Internet New press freedom predators elected to UN Human Rights Council May 6, 2020 Find out more RSF and Fundamedios welcome US asylum ruling in favor of Cuban journalist Serafin Moran Santiago News News October 15, 2020 Find out morelast_img read more

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USCG Rescues Five from Boat Sinking in St. Lucie Inlet

first_imgThe U.S. Coast Guard rescued five people from a sinking boat in the St. Lucie inlet on Friday.According to the Coast Guard, the boat took on water and sent five people into the inlet.There is no word on the conditions of those on board, but everyone was rescued safely according to the USCG.Coast Guards responded to a vessel rapidly taking on water just off of St. Lucie Inlet. The vessel capsized and sent 5 people into the water. Several vessels responded to Sector Miami’s PAN PAN and were able to rescue everyone. @CBS12 pic.twitter.com/5z6HDOxXgR— Denise Sawyer (@DeniseSawyerTV) June 28, 2019last_img read more

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Decomposing body of missing Fort Pierce woman found in serial rape suspect’s car

first_imgKano Roen Demetirus Brow, 29, was arrested last week on multiple rape charges after police say he violently attacked multiple woman dating back to 2016.Sheriff Ken Mascara called the details of the attacks “chilling.”Mascara said the property owner of the apartment where Brown was arrested called family members and asked them to remove his car, which was parked at the apartment. When a family member of Brown moved the car they noticed a smell coming from the vehicle.Investigators searched his car, and found a decomposing woman’s body later in the trunk.Officials later identified the decomposing body as Kathleen Black, 49, of Fort Pierce. Black was reported missing last week.Officials say the autopsy confirmed that Black died from injuries consistent with Brown’s violent attacks reported by the other victims.Sheriff Mascara says officials believe all attacks were “random.” He says they even believe Brown killed Black right before he was arrested on Thursday.“Currently, our detectives are working closely with the State Attorney’s Office to determine the best was to charge Kano Brown, build a solid case against him and hopefully seek a Grand Jury indictment for the death penalty, because that’s what he deserves,” Mascara said.If you have had any interaction with Brown, you are urged to contact our St. Lucie County detectives at 772-462-3230. Police discovered the decomposing body of a missing Fort Pierce woman in the vehicle of an accused serial rapist.On Wednesday, the St. Lucie County Sheriff’s Office revealed the details in the case of a serial rape suspect arrested last week.Man arrested for 3 sexual batteries in St. Lucie Countylast_img read more

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Napier brings it home for UConn

first_imgConnecticut head coach Kevin Ollie gives his star player Shabazz Napier (13) a kiss while the watch the “One Shining Moment’ video following their 60-54 win over the Kentucky Wildcats in the NCAA National Basketball Championship at AT&T Stadium in Arlington, Texas on Monday, April 7, 2014. (AP Photo/The Dallas Morning News, Tom Fox)ARLINGTON, Texas (AP) — Shabazz Napier walked slowly through the hallway of the stadium — the tears still drying, the twine from the cut-down net still hanging around his neck.“Bittersweet. Bittersweet. Bittersweet,” he said, over and over again.Bitter because it’s over. Sweet because UConn won it all after being left behind and told to go away.Napier turned in one final masterpiece as a college player Monday night, lifting the Huskies to a 60-54 win over Kentucky’s freshmen and bringing home a championship hardly anyone not wearing a UConn uniform thought was possible.“It’s unbelievable because those guys, my players, stayed with the program,” coach Kevin Ollie said.Led by 22 points from Napier, 14 points from Ryan Boatright and strong defensive games from both, the Huskies (32-8) won it all a short year after they were barred from March Madness because of academic problems. That triggered the departure of five players, and coach Jim Calhoun left because of health concerns.For those who remained, it stoked a fire no one could put out.“You’re looking at the hungry Huskies,” Napier told the crowd and TV audience as confetti rained down.  “Ladies and gentlemen, this is what happens when you banned us.”UConn never trailed in the final. The Huskies led by as many as 15 in the first half and watched the Wildcats (29-11) trim the deficit to one with 8:13 left. But Aaron Harrison, who pulled out wins with clutch 3-pointers in Kentucky’s last three games, missed a 3 from the left corner that would’ve given the Cats the lead. Kentucky never got that close again.One key difference in a six-point loss: Kentucky’s 11 missed free throws — a flashback of sorts for coach John Calipari, whose Memphis team blew a late lead against Kansas after missing multiple free throws in the 2008 final. The Wildcats went 13 for 24. UConn went 10 for 10, including Lasan Kromah’s two to seal the game with 25.1 seconds left.Calipari said he decided not to foul at the end “because they’re not missing.”“These kids aren’t machines. They’re not robots. They’re not computers,” Calipari said. “I say it again: I wish I had an answer for them later in the game where I could have done something to just click it to where we needed it to go. That 3 in the corner, if that would have gone, maybe the game changes a little bit, but it didn’t.”In all, Calipari’s One and Doners got outdone by a more fundamentally sound, more-seasoned group that came into this tournament a seventh-seeded afterthought but walked away with the program’s fourth national title since 1999. They are the highest seed to win it all since Rollie Massimino’s eighth-seeded Villanova squad in 1985.Napier now goes down with Kemba Walker, Emeka Okafor, Rip Hamilton, Ray Allen and all those other UConn greats. This adds to the school’s titles in 1999, 2004 and 2011.“It puts him right up there with all the great guards that came through the university,” Hamilton said. “The one thing — we have a legacy of producing great guards, and showing up at the right time, and he displayed it again.”A year ago, the Huskies were preparing for their first season in the new American Athletic Conference after the Catholic Big East schools decide to form a smaller league and none of the so-called power conferences invited UConn. Calhoun left and the program was turned over to the inexperienced Ollie. Most damaging, though, was the NCAA ban that triggered an exodus of five key players to the NBA or other schools.Ollie didn’t give up on the guys who stuck around. He figured out how to make their grit, court sense and loyalty pay off.“From the beginning, coach Ollie told us that we have a chance to be on top if we worked hard,” Napier said. “He always told us that. We always knew that the words were: ‘If we work hard.”They did Monday, and stayed one step ahead of Kentucky all night, holding off furious rally after furious rally.Kentucky’s biggest push started when James Young (20 points, seven rebounds) posterized Amida Brimah with a monster dunk to start a three-point play and trigger an 8-0 run.In the middle of that, Boatright, who shut down Harrison’s twin brother, Andrew, most of the night, twisted his left ankle while receiving an innocuous-looking pass from Napier. He called a timeout. Got it worked on and came back out.“I’ve got a lot of heart and I wasn’t coming out,” Boatright said. “We put in too much work all year for me to give up on an ankle sprain.”Napier and Niels Giffey made 3s on UConn’s two possessions after the timeout, and that one-point lead was back up to five — fairly comfortable by this tight, taut, buzzer-beating tournament’s standards.The big question in Kentucky is what will happen to all those freshmen. Julius Randle (10 points, six rebounds) is a lottery pick if he leaves for the NBA. Young and the Harrison brothers could be first-rounders, too.On the UConn side, Napier is a more marginal prospect.On the final night of this unpredictable college basketball season, though, that really wasn’t the point.“It’s not about going to the next level, it’s not about going to the pros, but playing for your university, playing for your teammates,” Giffey said. “And I’m so proud of all the guys on this team that stuck with this team.”last_img read more

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Vancouver rallies past Sharks 3-2 in Game one of the Western Conference Final

first_imgHenrik Sedin and Kevin Bieksa scored third period goals to rally the Vancouver Canucks to a 3-2 victory over the San Jose Sharks Sunday night in game one of the Western Conference Final at the Rogers Arena.Game two in the best-of-seven series goes Wednesday in Vancouver. San Jose held period leads of 1-0 and 2-1 before Vancouver took over the third period, dominating the Sharks.Henrik Sedin had a goal and an assist while Maxim Lapierre added the other goal for Vancouver. Despite a gaffe in the first period where he gave the puck right to Joe Thornton, Roberto Luongo made 27 saves for the victory and was solid for the most part for Vancouver,. Anti Niemi made 35 saves for the loss.Patrick Marleau, on the power play with his fourth of the playoffs also scored for the Sharks.last_img read more

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UWI FC to bolster attack in Red Stripe Premier League

first_imgDebutants UWI FC are holding their own in the Red Stripe Premier League (RSPL). They have taken 23 points from 19 games and are currently eighth in the standings with 23 points, trailing seventh-place Reno on goal difference.The league is more than halfway into the regular season, and according to the university’s director of sports, Dalton Myers, they will be making a big move in the transfer window to bring in two players to boost their chances of survival.Based on very reliable sources, the club is negotiating with out-of-favour national midfield playmaker Keammar ‘Dadda’ Daley and former Jamaica College and ex-UWI striker Anthony Grant.However, Myers insisted he could not confirm names until deals are completed.”We want to take some players in the January transfer window. We have been having trials and talking to players. We have a target from overseas who should start the next game, so we want to get that right, but until we confirm we cannot say much, because we don’t want anything to happen before closing the deals,” he offered.”They are Jamaican players: one of them plays overseas, the other one is here playing at another club. But it is very tight discussions and we are working on it,” was all he revealed.Daley is currently contracted to east Kingston outfit Harbour View, but has been woefully off form for the Stars of the East. Goalscoring ace Grant is a former McKendree and Bowling Green University player in the United States. He played in the USL for Michigan Bucks and Seacoast United Phantoms, before joining Richmond Kickers in the same league last year.Myers was full of praise for coach Marcel Gayle, adding that they are in a good position to achieve survival.”I have always said that he (Gayle) is one of the most underrated coaches in the island. He has shown that as he has taken players we barely knew and made us very competitive. Marcel has done great things with this team and we hope to have him here long term, to build the programme around him, give him a strong support system.He continued: “The goal is to finish 10th or better. Tenth or fourth is the same for us; we just want to survive. It’s a long season and there are roughly 14 more games to go, so anything can happen, as Waterhouse, Rivoli and Cavalier are more experienced teams than us, so we have to keep on picking up points.”We have to try and get a point in at least every game and make sure we don’t lose at home,” he added.last_img read more

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President seems to be in a perpetual state of slumber

first_imgDear Editor,When Dr Ashni Singh was Finance Minister and his wife was working in the same Ministry, Dr Singh, his family and the PPP/C Government went through tremendous criticisms from the PNCR, other political parties and certain sections of the media. The cry was “conflict of interest”. This was also the fate of Mr Khurshid Sattaur – former Commissioner General of Guyana Revenue Authority (GRA) and his sons during their employment at GRA.Today, the officials of the coalition Government are doing worse in every sector of the country and the overwhelming silence from the media and civil society is deafening. This Government needs to understand that their officials are “Politically Exposed Persons” (PEPs) and the standard operating procedures must be applied.They are required by law to declare annually all their assets, contracts, businesses, etc, and they cannot be involved in certain activities or business.Mr Charles Ceres and Mr S Hopkinson are known businessmen and they are entitled to land and other State contracts, etc but they also should do their due diligence and refrain from investing with known PEPs, State officials.We have already seen the demise of SOCU through massive corruption and now SARA is about to face similar questioning. The President seems to be in a perpetual state of slumber with so many inappropriate things happening under his nose. Wake up, sir!Yours truly,Ragubeer Persaudlast_img read more

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Did Evolving Fish Cry “Land Ho!” and Walk onto Land?

first_imgThe new fossil remains analyzed by Beznosov et al., reviewed by Fröbisch and Witzmann, include 183 skeletal fragments which the researchers grouped together to comprise what they estimate were 132 individual animals collected during excavations from 2002 to 2012. An examination of the fragments shown in Nature illustrates the problem of assembling these pieces correctly. I fail to see any indications these fragments link marine sea creatures and tetrapods. The only thing the evolutionists relied on was that a number of limb bones give evidence of being weight-bearing. Bones that would show clear evidence of transitions from fish to tetrapods were not in evidence. As the article’s authors admits, “The known diversity of tetrapods of the Devonian period has increased markedly in recent decades, but their fossil record consists mostly of tantalizing fragments.”[14]Many Radical Changes Required to Evolve From a Fish to a Land AnimalEvolving an aquatic animal into a tetrapod is, they confess, a chasm because of scores of radical changes that would be required. The transition from an aquatic, lobe-finned fish to an air-breathing amphibian had to be a major, fundamental event in the evolutionary history of the vertebrates. It would have required numerous adaptations within the overall body plan, both in form and in function. Consider just a few:Modification of the vertebral column to a thicker, stronger backbone to prevent the body from sagging under its own weight.Strong, sturdy limbs that could support and transport its body while out of water.Limbs with arms, and hands with digits (now standardized at five).A delicate integumentary system, modified from one designed to live in water. On land, it would be prone to desiccation, so it would need mechanisms to mitigate dehydration.A middle ear to connect to the piscine inner ear, allowing amplification of sound transmitted in air instead of water.Jaw bones reconstructed for herbivorous and carnivorous diets on land.SummaryFröbisch and Witzmann describe the Beznosov paper as a very partial, tentative story.The P. aelidae fossils offer a treasure trove of information that could help to disentangle some of the complex evolutionary changes that took place when vertebrates made the transition from aquatic to terrestrial life. This discovery also reminds us that much still remains to be learnt in the next gripping chapter of this detective story.[15]The existence of a “next gripping chapter of this detective story” is based on their firm belief that the evolutionary transition from aquatic to terrestrial life occurred. That’s why they believe more evidence will be uncovered if they just keep looking. In reality, the P. aelidae fossils do little to disentangle the “complex evolutionary changes that [supposedly] took place when vertebrates made the transition from aquatic to terrestrial life.”[16]References[1] Long JA, Gordon MS 2004. “The greatest step in vertebrate history: a paleobiological review of the fish-tetrapod transition”. Physiology Biochemical Zoology. 77 (5): 700–19.[2] Joyce Pieretti, Andrew R. Gehrke, Igor Schneider, Noritaka Adachi, Tetsuya Nakamura, and Neil H. Shubin. 2015. Organogenesis in deep time: A problem in genomics, development, and paleontology. PNAS , 112 (16) 4871-4876. April 21.[3] Nadia B. Fröbisch and Florian Witzmann, 2019. “Early tetrapods had an eye on the land.” Nature. 574 October 24. P. 494.[4] Jerry Bergman 2009. “Evidence for the Lack of Snake Evolution.” CRSQ. 45(4): 258-268, Spring.[5] The origin of tetrapods. https://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/evograms_04[6] Clack, Jennifer A. 1997. “Devonian tetrapod trackways and trackmakers; a review of the fossils and footprints.” Paleogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Paleoecology. 130 (1–4): 227–250.[7] Clack, Jennifer. 2012. Gaining Ground: the origin and evolution of the tetrapods, 2nd  edition. Indiana U Press, p. 128.[8] Denton, Michael. 2016. Evolution: Still a theory in crisis. Seattle, WA: Discovery Institute Press, p. 159.[9] Nadia B. Fröbisch and Florian Witzmann, 2019. “Early tetrapods had an eye on the land.” Nature. 574 October 24. P. 494.[10] Pavel A. Beznosov, Jennifer A. Clack, Ervīns Lukševičs, Marcello Ruta & Per Erik Ahlberg. 2019. Morphology of the earliest reconstructable tetrapod Parmastega aelidae. Nature 574: 527–531. October 31[11] Clack, J. A., Ahlberg, P. E., Blom, H. & Finney, S. M. 2012. A new genus of Devonian tetrapod from North-East Greenland, with new information on the lower jaw of Ichthyostega. Paleontology 55(1): 73–86.[12] Ibid.[13] Ibid.[14] Beznosov et al., page 530.[15] Fröbisch & Witzmann. 2019.[16] Ibid.Dr. Jerry Bergman has taught biology, genetics, chemistry, biochemistry, anthropology, geology, and microbiology at several colleges and universities including for over 40 years at Bowling Green State University, Medical College of Ohio where he was a research associate in experimental pathology, and The University of Toledo. He is a graduate of the Medical College of Ohio, Wayne State University in Detroit, the University of Toledo, and Bowling Green State University. He has over 1,300 publications in 12 languages and 40 books and monographs. His books and textbooks that include chapters that he authored, are in over 1,500 college libraries in 27 countries. So far over 80,000 copies of the 40 books and monographs that he has authored or co-authored are in print. For more articles by Dr Bergman, see his Author Profile.(Visited 296 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0 New Study Does Little to Solve How Sea Creatures Could Have Evolved into Land Creaturesby Jerry Bergman, PhDIn the world of animals, a great chasm exists between aquatic and terrestrial creatures. Consequently, to imagine the changes required to go from a body designed for breathing and navigating in water to one enabling an animal to breathe air and move on land is regarded by Darwinists as one of the most profound evolutionary transitions that ever occurred.[1] Not only is the origin of the limbs a major issue, but the transition from fins to limbs “is one of the critical events in the history of vertebrates.”[2] Specifically, evolutionary theory requires evidence of the transition from lobe-finned fish to tetrapod life forms. Evolutionists assume this transition occurred about 400 million Darwin years ago in the Devonian Period. No evidence exists to fill in this major gap, but a new study titled “Early tetrapods had an eye on the land” hints at some progress.[3] How promising are these new findings?Terminology Ground RulesIn the area of fish-to-tetrapod evolution, terminology is a problem, thus must be discussed. Tetrapod means “four feet” and includes all species that have four feet. Humans are called tetrapods by some, but because we walk on two legs, we are correctly called bipeds. Some evolutionists also include as tetrapods animals that don’t have four feet because they believe all land animals, living and extinct, were descended from the last common ancestor of tetrapods. Examples include the snake, even though it has no limbs, because evolutionists commonly claim it once had limbs, therefore is a tetrapod. No evidence exists to support this idea.[4] Also, the extinct swimming reptile called an ichthyosaur is called a tetrapod, even though it did not use its limbs to walk on land, because its ancestors are believed by evolutionists to have been tetrapods. Birds, too, are called tetrapods even though they walk on two legs, because they are believed to have evolved from tetrapod dinosaurs. The University of California website titled “Evolution” claims that all “animals are tetrapods because they descend from the tetrapod ancestor … even if they have secondarily lost their ‘four feet.’”[5] When used this way, the term “tetrapod” becomes not only confusing but meaningless. It violates the taxonomic rules of creationist Carolus Linnaeus, the father of taxonomy. This definition of tetrapod—even from an evolutionary framework—is meaningless if carried back far enough. It’s not unlike calling primates “bipedal” even if they walk on all fours or knuckle-walk, because of the assumption they evolved into bipedal humans.To be consistent, we will use the term tetrapods to refer only to animals that actually walk on four feet, and not on animals whose ancestors were assumed to once having walked on four feet, or animals believed in the past to have evolved into tetrapods from fish.Why Would a Marine Animal Evolve into a Land Animal?Theories about why fish evolved into land animals include the ‘drying pond’ hypothesis. This was proposed to explain “selection pressures” behind the transition. Fish with traits that helped them to survive the set of new conditions caused by their habitat drying out drove the survivors to became progressively better adapted to terrestrial conditions during prolonged episodes of drought. As we will show, this just-so-story lacks both anatomical as well as fossil evidence.The Problem of Tetrapod EvolutionLittle evidence supports the notion that some transitional marine animal moved to live on dry land, as evolution predicts. Living in a gravity-neutral aqueous environment and moving to a terrestrial environment requires the invention of very strong legs, strong enough to support the animal’s entire weight. A transitional form, even with partly evolved legs, could not have held its midsection off the ground until its limbs eventually evolved long and strong enough to support its weight. Thus, until this evolution was complete, one should expect to find evidence that they dragged their bellies on the ground. One study of all known trackways by the leading authority of the fish-to-tetrapod transition theory, Professor Jennifer Clack, does not provide any evidence that they dragged their bellies on the ground.[6]Clack also admitted, “The question of where tetrapods evolved is even more difficult to answer than that of when.”[7]  And Michael Denton noted after a full century and a half of research, “. . . the gap between the tetrapod limb and the fin remains.”[8] In a paper in Nature, Fröbisch and Witzmann admit that thescientific investigations into how vertebrates transitioned from water to land is like reading a good crime novel. We have a range of suspects, patchy evidence and a lot of unanswered questions. And to complicate matters, this transition from finned fish to four-limbed creatures (tetrapods) is a ‘cold case’ from nearly 400 million years ago.[9]Tetrapod fossil finds from the Devonian period have markedly increased recently. Still, however, the “fossil record consists mostly of tantalizing fragments.”[10] Fröbisch and Witzmann commented on the most recent attempts by announcing confidently, “Early tetrapods had an eye on the land: Fossil finds that can provide clues about how aquatic vertebrates evolved into land dwellers are elusive. But the ancient bones of a newly discovered species of tetrapod now provide some crucial missing evidence.”Specifically, the new fossil announced in Nature by Beznosov et al. contains the “lower jaw, pectoral girdle, external dermal bone pattern of the snout region,” they say, adding their interpretation: “the absence of gular plates and the relative size of the orbits are all tetrapod-like.” But then, assuming that these other parts belong to the same creature, they go on to say they are not typical of a tetrapod. Why are they intent on drawing a connection between these non-typical tetrapod parts to insist that the creature is transitional between lobe-finned fishes and tetrapods? Ockham‘s Razor (i.e., “the simplest answer is to be preferred”) would advise calling it another tetrapod variety. Variations on a theme are common in the living world. Given the degraded condition of the bone fragments, other interpretations are also possible. They do not even consider their specimen, called Parmastega, to be a transitional form:Parmastega gives us the earliest detailed glimpse of a tetrapod: an aquatic, surface-skimming predator, just over a metre in length, living in a lagoon on a tropical coastal plain. Parmastega is phylogenetically the least-crownward of all of the non-fragmentary tetrapods, but it is not necessarily representative of the primitive conditions for the group. The slightly earlier Elginerpeton—which was also probably aquatic and was even larger than Parmastega (Extended Data Fig. 4)—had well-ossified girdles and limb bones, as well as a distinctive head shape with a narrow snout. Moreover, the trackway record shows that tetrapods originated at least 20 million years before Parmastega, and the very existence of the trackways—which implies weight-bearing limbs, even if the prints were made in water—points to these forms having well-ossified postcranial skeletons. Together with the evidence for considerable morphological homoplasy among Devonian tetrapods, this hints at a tangled and still-unknown early history for limbed vertebrates.The new analysis of one example of a Devonian era tetrapod fossil collected in 1947 consists only of  both lower jaws, partial palate, premaxillae and maxillae, with a natural mold of parts of the shoulder girdle.[11] The authors describe it as “numerous isolated bones and some articulated skull regions.” But as far as can be determined from the fossil fragments found, the creature is a tetrapod, not a fish trying to evolve into a tetrapod. The fragments clearly are from tetrapods.[12] As the authors admit, all of those fragments indicate that “tetrapods had been in existence for about 30 million years.” [13] No clear evidence exists that they were marine animals evolving into tetrapods. The inference is indirect, based on evolutionary assumptions.Sign at Wyoming Dinosaur Center debunking earlier ideas about tetrapod evolution, before claiming Tiktaalik a “fish-a-pod” candidate. Photo by David Coppedge.last_img read more

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Karbonn launches Wind 4 Windows phone at Rs 5,999

first_imgKarbonn has introduced its first Windows based smartphone with the launch of Titanium Wind W4. The new device is available at Amazon India exclusively for INR 5,999.Similar to the launch of Titanium S10, Karbonn has not made any official announcement for Wind 4 also. The device runs on Windows 8.1 OS and comes with 4 inch WVGA (480X480 pixel) LCD display powered by a 1.2GHz quad-core Qualcomm processor and 512MB RAM.The dual SIM windows smartphone, Wind 4 has an inbuilt storage capacity of 4 GB which can be further expanded to up to 32 GB and 15 GB preinstalled OneDrive cloud storage space. It sports a 5 MP rear camera accompanied by a LED flash and also houses a 0.3 MP front camera.The device is presently available only in white color. It might be worth mentioning that Microsoft’s lowest priced Lumia smartphone, Lumia 530 is priced at INR 7,349.Recently, Karbonn launched its first Android One device in India called Karbonn Sparkle V, valued at Rs. 6,399.last_img read more

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